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Disability & Social Responses in Afghanistan & Pakistan

Introduction & Bibliography, mainly non–medical, with historical material and some annotation

Compiled, introduced and annotated by M. Miles
West Midlands, UK

For a list of abbreviations used in this document, consult the glossary.

Afghanistan (modern)

ACBAR. Glossary of Terms Relating to Disability in English, Dari and Pushtu (March 1990 revision). Peshawar: ACBAR Task Force on Assistance to Disabled Afghans. 6 pp.
Lists 58 common English disability terms with Dari and Pushto equivalents in both Roman and Persian script.

ACBAR Disability Task Force Workshop, Accessibility for Disabled Persons in Afghanistan. Peshawar: ACBAR. 34 pp.

AFGHAN Assoc. Blind (1999) Annual Report 1998. [Peshawar] 11 pp.

Afghan Female Health Worker Manual (1991) Peshawar: CCAR/UNICEF/ UNHCR/SCF. 319 pp.
Useful section on Helping Disabled People pp. 279–88. Dari version in progress. Includes activities recommended for FHWs to do, and hints for trainers of FHWs to teach them these activities.

Afghan Medical Journal, Kabul. 1956 – #.

AFGHANISTAN. Transitional Government; Ministry of Martyrs and Disabled (2003) The Comprehensive National Disability Policy in Afghanistan. Kabul. 40 pp.
Final draft, submitted to the Minister of Martyrs and Disabled. Policy document in English, providing a broad framework based on euro–american notions of democracy, human rights, stakeholder participation, accessibility, inclusiveness, and concepts borrowed from similar documents in other countries. A major aim is that, as various government ministries plan and begin implementation of reconstruction and development, the needs of disabled people should be included in those plans at the earliest opportunity.

AHMADYAR, M. Nabi (1977) A survey and analysis of Primary School curriculum development in Afghanistan from 1966 to 1976. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Ottawa

AHRTAG (1987) Pushto: Da Vrazani Jound Lapara Sada Comakoona. [Simple Aids for Daily Living London: AHRTAG.] Peshawar: SCF UK. 75 pp.
How to make aids for sitting, walking and physiotherapy using simple carpentry tools.

AMAN, Qamar (1991) Dari: Kitlak bozichahah barai atfal 6 maha – 7 sola [Pattern Book for Toys for Children 6 months to 7 years], Peshawar: IRC Kodakistan Education Program. 35 pp.
For IRC's Kodakistan ("place of children" = kindergarten) early education and learning through play program. Toys from simple and primary materials, with illustrations.

ANDERSSON, Neil, D.A. SOUSA, Cesar Palha & PAREDES, Sergio (1995) Social cost of land mines in four countries: Afghanistan, Bosnia, Cambodia, and Mozambique, Brit. Med. J. 311: 718–21.

ARYA L.S., QURESHI M.A., JABOR A. & SINGH M. (1988) Lathyrism in Afghanistan, Indian Journal of Pediatrics 55: 440–42.

AZIM, Mohammad (1991) Pushto: [Child Psychology]. Peshawar: RBTU. 12 pp.

BOUSQUET, Christine (1990) Final Report: Iodine Deficiency Disorders control programme for Afghan refugees. Chitral Valley May 1989 – December 1989. Médicins Sans Frontières. 10 pp.

BOUSQUET C. (1990) Presentation of the UNHCR survey of Iodine Deficiency Disorders among Afghan refugees. Peshawar: UNHCR. 7 pp.

BOYCE, William (1998) Mid–term performance evaluation. Peshawar: Comprehensive Disabled Afghans Programme. 80 pp.

BROLIN L.A. (2000) How Can Boys and Girls with Disabilities Best be Reached? Stockholm: Save the Children Sweden. 39 pp. ISBN 91–89366–49–2.
Report and assessment of three programs for children with disabilities in Afghanistan and Pakistan being supported by Save the Children Sweden.

CADA. Guidelines and Priorities. (1989) Geneva: Operation Salam. 26 pp.
Broad program guidelines drawn up in May 1989 by representatives of the major UN bodies having an interest in disability, focusing primarily on the situation of Afghans living in Pakistan.

CAIRO, Alberto (2002) Starting from scratch – The ICRC orthopaedic project in Afghanistan.

CAIRO A. (2003) Disability services in Afghanistan. Presentation at the National Policy on Disability workshop, October 2003, Kabul.

CAIRO A. (2003) Storia da Kabul. Torino: Einaudi. vii + 269 pp.

CAMPBELL, Shon (2001) Lost Chances: the changing situation of children in Afghanistan 1999–2000. Islamabad: UNICEF. 122 pp.
Detailed, intelligent report based on Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys for UNICEF, c. 2000, and bibliography of 103 items. pp. 78–80, overview of disabled children. Other disability–relevant material appears on pp. 41 & 43 (goitre, IDD, mental impairment), 52–53 (extensive chronic malnutrition), 60 (mine and UXO damage), 73–74 (traumatic experiences).

CARDOZO B.L., BILUKHA O.O., CRAWFORD C.A., SHAIKH I., WOLFE M.I., GERBER M.L. & ANDERSON M. (2004) Mental health, social functioning, and disability in postwar Afghanistan. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 292: 575–84.

CDAP (1995– ) Annual Report. Peshawar: CDAP.

CDAP (1996) Curriculum for the Training of Mid–Level Rehabilitation Workers in CBR in Afghanistan. Peshawar: CDAP. 43 pp.

CDAP (1998) Toolkit for monitoring and self–evaluation in the CDAP CBR programme. Peshawar: CDAP. 104 pp.

CDAP (1999) National Workshop on Development of Afghan Sign Language: 8–10 February 1999. Peshawar: Comprehensive Disabled Afghans' Project. 21 pp.
See note under SERVE, 2001.

CDC (1999) Outbreak of poliomyelitis – Kunduz, Afghanistan, 1999. MMWR 48: 761–62.

CDC (1999) Progress towards poliomyelitis eradication Afghanistan, 1994 1999, MMWR 48: 825 28.

CDC (2003) Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication — Afghanistan and Pakistan, January 2002 – May 2003. MMWR 52 (29) 683–685.

CDC (2004) Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication — Afghanistan and Pakistan, January 2003 – May 2004. MMWR 53 (28) 634–637.

CENTRE for Disability Service (1991) Dari: Zaban Ishara [Sign Language] Kabul: Centre for Disability Service.
Four booklets (c. 100 pp.) produced, representing efforts to formulate and codify the sign language used among deaf people in Kabul, with a basis in American Sign Language.

CHOUDHRY D.P. (1981) A framework for child legislation in Afghanistan.
Working paper for National Seminar on Child and Law, Ministry of Justice, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and UNICEF, Kabul, September 1981.

COLERIDGE, Peter (2000) Disability and culture. In: Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, Selected Readings in Community Based Rehabilitation, Series 1, pp 21–38. Bangalore.

COLERIDGE P. (2002) Community Based Rehabilitation in a complex emergency: study of Afghanistan. In: Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, Selected Readings in Community Based Rehabilitation. Series 2, 35–49. Bangalore.

CUNNINGHAM C.A. (1979) Some causes of blindness seen at Noor Eye Institute, Afghanistan. Brit. J. Physiological Optics 33: 1–40.

DADFAR, M. Azam (1987) Refugee camp syndrome, An analytical review of the general causes of psychological problems among Afghan refugee children, in: The Children of Afghanistan in War and Refugee Camps, pp 65–70 (Stockholm, Swedish Committee for Afghanistan).

DADFAR M.A. (1987) Victims of torture in Afghanistan. WUFA 2 (1) 91 99.
Report on torture and medical/psychological sequelae in 40 victims. Printed in the Quarterly Journal of Writers Union of Free Afghanistan.

DADFAR M.A. (1987) Refugee camp syndrome. WUFA 2 (2) 1– 9.
Reviews psychological problems among Afghan refugee children.

DADFAR M.A. (1990) From mental peace to impaired minds. In: The Impaired Mind, 11–20. Peshawar: Psychiatry Centre for Afghan Refugees.
Reviews several years' psychiatric work among Afghan refugees.

DANUOR, Nemorius. (1991) Afghans at war against mental disability, UNV News, December, pp. 5–7.
Briefly describes the beginnings of a scheme for home based training of people with mental disabilities in Kabul.

DANUOR N. (1992) Report of a Mission to Mazar–i–Sharif for Disabled Afghans Project, October 21 – November 05, 1992. DAP/UNDP/OPS, Peshawar.

DECONINCK H. (2003) The health condition of spinal cord injuries in two Afghan towns. Spinal Cord 41: 303–309.

DEBETH G.F. (1970) Physical Anthropology of Afghanistan, Transl. from Russian, E.V. Portov, Ed. H Field. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. 2 Vols.

DRAGISIC, Tanya (1992) Second Statistic Report on the Survey of the Disabled in Afghanistan. Unpublished report from Employment Support Services, ILO, Kabul. 19 pp.
Data on 3,500 Afghan disabled clients (89% male) of the Employment Support Services, from Sept. 91 to Jan. 92, in various areas (Kabul 80%, Parwan 10%).

DUPREE, Louis (1973/1980) Afghanistan. Princeton NJ: Princeton UP. xxiv + 778.
See reference to blindness (pp. 73, 116, 118, 335–36); saint and shrine beliefs (104, 109); the traditions of childhood and child rearing (192–197); games and play (209–214), medicinal plants (672–73).

DUPREE, Nancy Hatch (1998) The Women of Afghanistan. Swedish Committee for Afghanistan, with UN Coordinator for Afghanistan.

DUPREE N.H. (2002) Cultural heritage and national identity in Afghanistan. Third World Quarterly 23: 977–89.

FAIZI–WARDAK, Qaseem (2003) Statistic and Disability Planning: Afghanistan database. Paper for UNESCAP workshop on Disability Measurement, Bangkok, Sept. 2003. Kabul: Min. Martyrs & Disabled. At:

FREE WELFARE Society for Afghan Disabled. Quarterly Reports, Peshawar.

FISCHER, Ludolph (1968) Afghanistan: Eine geographisch medizinische Landeskunde, A Geo medical Monograph (English section, pp. 67–139, Transl. J.A. Hellen & I.F. Hellen). Heidelberg: Springer Verlag Berlin. With maps.
Describes medical facilities and conditions to 1968. See: Beliefs, traditions and folk medicine (pp. 84–85); hospitals and public health services (86–94), including ‘mother and child’ services (91–92); trachoma and leprosy (114–16); poliomyelitis, said to be "imported in the 1950s and has spread fast since then" (121); goitre and iodine deficiency, and epilepsy (128).

FISCHER L. (1974) Volksmedizin in Afghanistan. Afghanistan J. 1 (3) 51–64.
See also FISCHER, 1943

FRANÇOIS, Isabelle, LAMBERT, Marie–Lawrence, SALORT, Cécile, SLYPEN, Vincent, BERTRAND, Françoise & TONGLET, René (1998) Causes of locomotor disability and need for orthopaedic devices in a heavily mined Taliban controlled province of Afghanistan, Tropical Medcn. & Intl Health 3: 391–96.

GESSNER, Bradford D. (1994) Mortality rates, causes of death, and health status among displaced and resident populations of Kabul, Afghanistan, J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 272 (5) 382–85.

GOBAR, Asad H. (1974) An overview of psychiatric morbidity in Afghanistan. Intl Mental Health Research Newsletter 16 (4) 11–13.

GODOY P., HAGHGOU M., POPOVICI F. & SADOZAI N. (2001) La eliminacion de la poliomielitis en zonas en conflicto: el caso de Afganistan. [Poliomyelitis eradication in areas of armed conflict: the case of Afghanistan]. Gaceta Sanitaria 15: 182–84.

GREETHAM, Christopher J. (1991) Poliomyelitis among Afghan Refugees, Physiotherapy 77 (6) 421 22.
Analysis of several years' data accumulated at the SGAA Clinic in Peshawar.

GUPTA, Leila (1997) Psychosocial assessment of children exposed to war–related violence in Kabul (Kabul, UNICEF). 12 pp.

HABIBI, Gulbadan S. (1989) Disability among Afghan Women – its impact on child survival and development and quality of life of the family. New York: UNICEF. 8 pp.

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL (#) [Annual Reports on Work with Disabled Afghans]
[Over a period of at least 20 years, reports from this source, based initially in Quetta, and working both with refugees and inside Afghanistan, have contained data and some analysis, particularly on physical impairments, from professionals accustomed to working in difficult situations].

HANIFI, M. Jamil (1971) Child rearing patterns among Pushtuns of Afghanistan. Intl J. Sociology of the Family 1: 53–57.
Afghan anthropologist on family structures and traditional patterns of child–rearing that have undergone little change over centuries.

HELANDER E., MENDIS P., NELSON G. & GOERDT A. (1990, Fourth edn) Training in the Community for People with Disabilities. Geneva: WHO.
Approximately 1100 pp. in 40 sections.
Dari, Pushto: Various sections of the WHO CBR Training Manual.

HOLLA M. (1981) Situation of children in Afghanistan. Working paper for NATIONAL Seminar on Social Statistics organised by Central Statistical Office, DRA & UNICEF, Kabul, December 1981.

HUNTE, Pamela (1981) The role of Dai (Traditional Birth Attendant) in urban Afghanistan: some traditional and adaptational aspects, Medical Anthropology 5 (1) 17 26.

HUNTE P. & SULTANA F. (1984) The Dai (Traditional Midwife) in Rural Baluchistan: tradition and change. Quetta: UNICEF.

IBN SINA (organisation) (1999) Goitre Survey, Kouz Kunar District, Nangarhar. Peshawar: IbnSina.

IBN SINA (…) (2000) Presentation of Iodine Deficiency, the problem in Afghanistan. Peshawar: IbnSina. 12 pp.

ICBL (Intl Campaign to Ban Landmines) (2001) Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 497–518, at: (accessed June 2002)

The Impaired Mind (1990) (Peshawar, Psychiatry Center for Afghan Refugees). 50 pp.

IQBAL S.J. (1990) Afghan Children in Armed Conflict. Peshawar: Darus Salam Inst. Reconstructive Surgery. 14 pp.
Discusses some war trauma, both physical and psychological, and the varieties of reconstructive surgery by Dr. Iqbal.

IQBAL S.J. (1990) Survey of Malnutrition, Disability, Immunisation and War Damage in 85 Villages in Kunar and Paktia Provinces of Afghanistan. Sponsored by UNICEF (Afghan Office) Peshawar. 18 pp.
Total of 15,533 people were seen, among whom were 763 with war related injuries/disabilities and 1791 with non war related injuries/disabilities. Categories are tabulated.

IQBAL, Sayed Javed (1992) Afghanistan: squashed under the growing mountain of disability. Peshawar: Afghan Rehab. & Training Services. 8 pp.

Intl Labour Organisation (1991) Dari: Assasat e Rahbere e Tashabusat e Koochak. [Basics of Small Business Management] Rehabilitation Learning Element, Training Category: Vocational, Module No. 033. Project LES/84/MOI/FIN Vocational Rehab. of Disabled Persons. Kabul: ILO. 30 pp.

ILO [c. 1991] Dari: Zakhmhai Bester [Pressure Sores]. Transl. Zarghoona Ubaidi. Kabul: ILO. 20 pp.

ILO [c. 1991] Dari: Malooliat hai physiki [Physical Disability]. Transl. Ahmad Shah Noorzai. Rehabilitation Learning Element. Training Category: Medical. Module No. 002. Project LES/84/MOI/FIN Vocational Rehab. of Disabled Persons. Kabul: ILO. 88 pp.

ILO [c. 1991] Dari: Moqadama e Amozesh e Ekhtesasi. [Introduction to Special Education]. Transl. Ahmad Shah Noorzai. Rehabilitation Learning Element, Training category: Education. Module No. 13. Project on Vocational Rehab. of Disabled Persons. Kabul: ILO. 17 pp.

Intl Rescue Committee [1987] Pushto: De Mashoom Falij: Polio? [Child's leg is paralysed: Polio?] Peshawar: IRC Health Education Resource Centre. 4 pp.
In a booklet on six common diseases, pp. 1 4 are on polio.

IRC (1988) Pushto: Da Maafiat Stano Programme Da Soba Sarhad Roghteya Idara. [The Immunisation Programme of NWFP Health Dept]. (1988) Peshawar: HERC & Deputy Project Director Health EPI. 29 pp.

IRC (1989) Dari: Boziha barai atfal kodakistan [Children's Games for Pre School] (1989) Compiled by Mother & Child Centre ECETP students. Peshawar: IRC Mother & Child Centre. 12 sets (c. 60 pp.).
These and similar IRC booklets are relevant for work with families with children who are developmentally delayed, from whatever type of impairment.

AL–JIBALY M. (1998) The Inevitable Journey, Part 1: Sickness: Regulations & Exhortations. Arlington TX: Al Kitaab & as Sunaah Publishing.
pp. 101 134 concern "Regulations for the Disabled," with quotations from Quran and hadiths, meanings of disability, duties of the Muslim Ummah towards disabled people, and some discussion of the rights and wrongs of ‘western’ rehab. approaches. Based on work in Arabic by Abd ul Ilaah Bin `Uthmaan ash Shaayi and by Abd ur Rahmaan `Abd ul Khaaliq.

KAKAR F. & VERSTER A. (1996) Iodine deficiency in Afghanistan, World Health Forum 17: 209.

KRISTIANSSON, Bengt (1990) Position paper on disabled Afghans and assistance related to them. Peshawar: UNOCA. 25 pp.

KRISTIANSSON B (1990) Report on Rehabilitation Services in Kabul, (Peshawar, UNOCA).

KRISTIANSSON B. (1991) Report on Takhar Mission, (Peshawar, Disabled Afghans Project).

LAJOINIE, Simone Bailleau (1980) Conditions de Femmes en Afghanistan. Paris: Editiones Sociales. 222 pp.

LAMBERT M–L., FRANÇOIS I., SALORT C., SLYPEN V., BERTRAND F. & TONGLET R. (1997) Household survey of locomotor disability caused by poliomyelitis and landmines in Afghanistan, Brit. Med. J. 315: 1424 25.
Notes that "more people had been disabled by poliomyelitis than by landmines." (Age and sex enter the equation. Polio viruses have had longer to work on the population, as compared with landmines. Men, moving about freely, were much more likely to encounter landmines than women, who were mostly confined to moving about in particular places).

LEMON C (1989) Dari: Tefel wa amodagi barai bozikardan [Ready to Play].
Peshawar: IRC Mother & Child Centre. 40 pp. (handwritten, foolscap).Concerning children's play, with details of games. [Pushto version may be available]

Leprosy in Afghanistan. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 152: [1362]

LILLESAAR, Wiuu (1922) Psychological and psychiatric training in Afghan camps. Peshawar: Radda Barnen. 22 pp.

MALEY, William (1998) Mine action in Afghanistan. Refuge 17 (4) 12–16.

MENDIS, Padmani (1989) Report on CADA Short term Consultancy Mission to Pakistan. Fifth February to Fourth March 1989.vGeneva: Operation Salam. 20 pp.

MGHIR R. & RASKIN A. (1999) The psychological effects of the war in Afghanistan on young Afghan refugees from different ethnic backgrounds, Intl J. Soc. Psychiatry 45: 29–40.

MICHAEL, Markus & ZWI, Anthony B. (2002) Oceans of need in the desert: ethical issues identified while researching humanitarian agency response in Afghanistan. Developing World Bioethics 2 (2) 109–130.
Humanitarian agencies often provide services in emergencies that evolve into highly complex longer–term situations, where population groups have sharply differing access to survival / reconstruction resources. Article discusses ethical issues arising, based on the support by Intl Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to a hospital at Ghazni, Afghanistan.

MILATMAL, Tajuddin (1986) Pushto: Vaccine au Vaccination. [Vaccine & Vaccination]. Peshawar: IRC Health Educ. Resource Centre, & Afghans Health & Social Assistance Organisation. 77 pp.

MILES, Christine (1990, revised edn) Special Education for Mentally Handicapped Pupils. A Teaching Manual. Peshawar: Mental Health Centre. 263 pp.
Dari: Transl. Hamidullah Simab, Peshawar: CDAP.
Pushto: Peshawar: CDAP.
Practical manual based on a decade's experience of teaching children and training teachers in Pakistan, with activities, examples and illustrations suitable to the Asian Islamic context.

MILES, M. (1986) Rehabilitation Broadcasts for Rural Areas. Peshawar: Mental Health Centre; Brussels, ILSMH. 46 pp. ERIC Ed 280244.
Pushto: audio cassettes of broadcasts are available. Some of the material also appears in the Pushto Disability and Community Based Rehab. Curriculum from SCF U.K., see listing). Broadcast to Afghanistan in 1984 as part of a Health series. Revised scripts in DisabilityWorld e–zine, see: MILES (2001, 2002) below.

MILES M. (1990) Disability and Afghan reconstruction: some policy issues, Disab. Handicap & Socy 5: 257 67.

MILES M. (1992) Information & Awareness on Disability. Consultancy Report for the Disabled Afghans Project, Peshawar, UNDP/OPS, available: ED361919, ERIC Document Reproduction Service, Springfield VA
The consultancy provided an opportunity to initiate a collection of materials on disability in Afghanistan.

MILES M. (1997) Afghan children and mental retardation: information, advocacy and prospects, Disab. & Rehab. 19: 496 500.

MILES M. (2001) Disabled Afghans in the Cross–fire of Cultures.

MILES M. (2001) The Blind Afghan Child. At:

MILES M. (2001) Disability in the Afghan school.

MILES M. (2002) Epilepsy in the Afghan Village.

MILES M. (2002) Formal and informal disability resources for Afghan reconstruction, Third World Quarterly, 23: 945–959. Reprinted in: S. Barakat (Ed.) (2004) Reconstructing War–Torn Societies: Afghanistan, 145–159. Palgrave, Macmillan.
Reprinted with slight revision in: Zeitschrift Behinderung und Dritte Welt, 1/2003, pp. 16–26.

MILES M. (2002) The blind Afghan child and young man. J. Religion, Disab. & Health 6 (2/3) 43–49.
‘Fictional interviews’ show a young Muslim, Abdul Ghani, blind from birth, talking of his life in a remote Afghan village and later in town. As a child, he came to learn about his home and village with the assistance of his family, learnt to farm a small patch of land, and eventually gained skills as a bicycle repairer, running a small business with a physically disabled partner. Revised and updated from radio scripts first broadcast in 1986.

MUZAFFAR W., KHAN M.D., AKBAR M.K., MALIK A.M. & DURRANI O.M. (2000) Mine blast injuries: ocular and social aspects, Brit. J. Ophthalmology 84: 626–30.

NASAFI, Saifuddin (1990) Epilepsy of war time among Afghans, in: The Impaired Mind, pp. 21–28 (Peshawar, Psychiatry Center for Afghan Refugees).

NASIR J.A., CHANMUGHAM P., TAHIR F., AHMED A. & SHINWARI F. (2004) Investigation of the probable causes of specific childhood disabilities in eastern Afghanistan (preliminary report). Central European J. Public Health 12: 53–57.

NEUENSCHWANDER, Elizabeth (1990) Project IG and Training for Afghan Women and Disabled Men January to December 1989, Quetta: UNHCR/CRS. 22 pp.
p. 2: "(Disabled) men also ask the teacher to have patience with them, because before they were looking after goats and sheep and so (to) sew with machines is completely new to them."

O'CONNOR, Ronald W. (Ed.) (1980) Managing Health Systems in Developing Areas. Experiences from Afghanistan. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

O'CONNOR R.W. (1994) Health care in Muslim Asia: development and disorder in wartime Afghanistan. Lanham MD: Univ. Press of America. xxvi + 282 + maps. illustrated.

OVRID, Torunn & TVEDT, Marit (1988) Identification of mentally handicapped children in Afghan refugee camps. Report from a practical training–period in Pakistan, Oct.Nov. 1988. Bergen Vernepleierhigskole, Norway. 19 pp.

PASCARELLI A. & YADGARI A. (2003) Education for disabled people in Afghanistan: study of Kabul city. Paper presented at Natl Seminar on Disability Policy, August 2003, Kabul.

PENKALA, Danuta (1980) "Hot" and "cold" in the traditional medicine of Afghanistan, Ethnomedizin 6: 201–228.

PILLSBURY, Barbara L.K. (1978) Traditional Health Care in the Near East. Washington D.C.: Agency for International Development.
pp. 64–76 on Afghanistan.

POIROT J–C (1952) Indice trachomateux scolaire dans les établissements d'enseignement secondaire de Kaboul. Revue Internationale de Trachome 29: 27–33.

PUPAVAC, Vanessa (2002) Afghanistan: the risks of international psychosocial risk management, Health in Emergencies, No. 12 (March 2002) 1–2. At: (accessed June 2002).

RADDA BARNEN (1991) Pushto: Mashoom na mashoom ta [CHILD to Child]. Transl. Mr Asad, for RBTU. (Based on pamphlets from the Inst. Child Health, London). Peshawar: RBTU. c. 74 pp., handwritten, in 16 parts.
Older children/peers giving health education to younger/other children, checking them for hearing and visual impairment and developmental delay, and introducing games and toys that include children with disabilities.

RADDA BARNEN (1992) Disabled Afghans Project (DAP) 1993–1995 Project Document. Peshawar. 28 pp.

RADDA BARNEN [1992] Pushto: Kumak namoodan ba maleemeen wa atfal dar dark namoodan–e–atfal–e– mayoub [Helping Teachers and Children Understand Disabled Children]. Peshawar: Radda Barnen Training Unit. 27 pp. Handwritten.
pp. 69 in: Pushto Immunisation Programme of NWFP Health Dept (q.v.)

RADDA BARNEN [1992] Pushto: Da mayoubiatoono mokhneway [Prevention of Disabilities]. Peshawar: RBTU. 10 pp. (Handwritten, unpublished).

Radda Barnen Training Unit. Dari: [UN Convention on Children's Rights]. Peshawar: RBTU. 2 pp.
Pushto: [UN Convention on Children's Rights]. Peshawar: RBTU. 2 pp.

Radda Barnen Training Unit. Pushto: Da mayoubo mashoomano ijtimaye taraqi. [Social Development of Handicapped Children]. Peshawar: RBTU. 11 pp. (Handwritten).

RADOVANOVIC M. (1958) Trachoma problem in Afghanistan. WHO Report SEA 64/124, July 1958. New Delhi.

RAHIMI F. (1986) Women in Afghanistan. Liestal: Stiftung Bibliotheca Afghanica.

RASEKH Z., BAUER H.M., MANOS M.M. & IACOPINO V. (1998) Women's health and human rights in Afghanistan, J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 280 (5) 449–55.

REHMAN [Rahman], Farhat (2004) CBR and Land Mine Survivors' Assistance on Borders. Pakistan Special (Landmine Supplement) Vol. 5 (No. 43) pp. 5–11.
Reports work of Rehabilitation Centre for the Physically Disabled, Peshawar, in community– and centre– based rehab. for people in the Pakistan–Afghanistan border region injured by land mines (and other war–related causes).

ROUAULT DE LA VIGNE, A. (1960) Notes d'un psychiatre en Afghanistan. L'Hygiène Mentale, 278–.
(N.B. Variations appear in citations using the name of this author. The present form and spelling has been verified from the following items, and self–citation of one of the author's papers.)

ROUAULT DE LA VIGNE, A. & AHMAD, Ali (1953) Lathyrisme en Afghanistan, Revue Médicale du Moyen–Orient 10: 325–36.
Case notes on seven people suffering from lathyrism seen during one year at Kabul, with discussion.

ROUAULT DE LA VIGNE, A. & RACHID, Abdul (1952) Un cas de lathyrisme avec porphyrinurie. Le bull. médicale, (First January).

RUGH, Andrea B. & KALMTHOUT, Ellen (2000) Strategy for Afghan Primary Education: progress from 1998 to 2000. Islamabad: UNICEF. 19 pp.

SAIKAL, Nadir (1995) Intellectual disability in Afghanistan (Australian Capital Territory, Social Volunteers' Assoc. Afghanistan in Australia). 9 pp.

SARIF, Brigitte (1977) Zur situation der Frauen in Afghanistan. Unpub. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Frankfort. 173 pp.

SAXENA G.B. (1981) Child data base in Afghanistan: a social introspection. Working paper for National Seminar on Social Statistics organised by Central Statistical Office, DRA & UNICEF, Kabul, December 1981.

SAHAK, Abdul Rahman (1992) Facilities for People with Disabilities. Peshawar: Free Welfare Socy for Afghan Disabled.

SAHAK A.R. (1997) Mission Report, May 15–16, 1997: Gardiz, Paktia Province, Afghanistan. Peshawar: Afghan Disabled Socy. 5 pp.

SAHAK A.R. (1997) Mission Report, September 29–31, 1997: Sharan, Paktia Province, Afghanistan. Peshawar: Afghan Disabled Socy. 7 pp.

SAMADY, Saif R. (2002) Dari: [Education and Afghan Society in the twentieth century.] Paris: UNESCO. 221 pp.

SATARZAI, Abdul Shakoor (1991) Dari: Bas tawanye maloolin wa mayoubin wa manabey mahali [Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons Using Local Resources]. Kabul: ILO. 18 pp.

SCFU.K. (1989) Pushto: Disability and Community Based Rehabilitation. Curriculum for 11 Day Course for CHSs and CHWs. Revision 1, Working Draft. Peshawar: Save the Children Fund U.K.. 100 pp.
Detailed training course material developed and tested over several years with community workers in refugee villages.

SCHOHABZADAH N. (1956) Die Organisation der Gesundheitspflege für Mütter, Säuglinge und Kinder in Afghanistan. Hamburg: Akademie für Staatsmedizin.

Self Evaluation Report ASYAR NWFP from January 1 to December 31 1990. Peshawar: SOS-PG Belgium Solidarite Afghanistan. 9 pp.
Report on the Apprenticeship Scheme for Young Afghan Refugees. Out of 621 placed apprentices, 178 were disabled. For some of these "a new trade of Memorising the Holy Quran has been introduced…"

SELLICK P. (1998) The impact of armed conflict on children in Afghanistan. Save the Children Alliance & UNICEF.

SÉRIGNAN, Claude (1960) La condition des femmes en Afghanistan et son évolution récente. Orient 4 (2) 33–56.

SERVE (1990) Goiter and Cretinism. Peshawar: SERVE. 16 pp.

SERVE (1990) Pushto: Ghour au Cretinism [Goiter and Cretinism]. Peshawar: SERVE. 16 pp.

SERVE (1995) Afghan Sign Language, Book One. Peshawar: SERVE. 159 pp.
[Also in Dari & Pushto] See next.

SERVE (2001) [ Second edn [Jalalabad]
Upgrading is in progress for a third edition, jointly with other agencies, to produce an expanded Afghan Sign Language Dictionary. See:

SGAA (2002) Fourth National Disability Workshop: physiotherapy services and orthopaedic technology in Afghanistan, 27 & 28 February 2002. Peshawar: Sandy Gall's Afghanistan Appeal. 17 pp.

SHAFIQUE M., KHATTAK S.M. & IDRESS M. (1988) A psychiatric glance at the Afghan refugees. In: S.H. Ahmed (Ed.) Psychiatry in Pakistan. Karachi: PPS.

SHAHBAZ G.M. (1981) Statement of child law and child policy in Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. Report of the National Seminar on Child and Law, Ministry of Justice, DRA and UNICEF, Kabul, Sept. 1981.

SIMPSON, Robert A. (2002) North West Frontier. Mission in Afghanistan. Med. J. Australia 177: 633–637.
Includes note on lathyrism in Wakhan corridor, North East of Afghanistan. Doing basic health checks in villages, "we found that many locals complained of muscle stiffness, with examination revealing very obvious lower–limb clonus, consistent with lathyrism. Obviously, the condition was endemic. Most of the locals knew of the association between patak [lathyrus sativus, also known as chickling pea, grass pea and kesan dahl] and lathyrism but continued to eat it out of economic necessity." (See ARYA et al., 1988; ROUAULT DE LA VIGNE & AHMAD, 1953; and in historical section: McCARRISON; MACKENZIE; SHAH; KIRK; STEEL et al.)

SINGH, Meharban (1983) Health status of children in Afghanistan, Indian Pediatrics 20: 317 23.
Overview by one of the leading pediatricians, based on surveys carried out in the 1970s by the Central Statistical Office.

SINGH M., JAWADI M.H., ARYA L.S. & RAHIM F. (1982) Congenital malformations at birth among live–born infants in Afghanistan. Indian J. Pediatrics 49: 331–36.

SOOPRAMANIEN A. & MOERI J. (1991) Social Implications of Spinal Cord Injury in Peshawar, Pakistan. Geneva: ICRC. 10 pp.
Discusses the realities and problems of home life for more than 1,000 Afghans and Pakistanis with spinal cord injury, after discharge from the ICRC/PRC Paraplegic Centre.

TAWFIK Y. (1991) Demographic and Health Household Survey in Afghanistan, Wardak Province. Management Sciences for Health/USAID. 44 pp.
Includes a small amount of data and discussion on disability (pp. 3, 27 28), mostly physical disability. Notes (p. 12) the particular difficulty of determining individuals' age. (This has some relevance to the perception of mental retardation).

THRELKELD, Robert M. (1979) Attitudes towards disability in two cultures: Afghanistan and the United States. Ph.D. thesis, Boston Coll.
Attitude measurements in Afghan cultures, based on brief visits to centres and interviews with high school students who were shown photos of people with or without crutches, with facial scarring, and with a label saying "This person is deaf."

TURMUSANI, Majid (2003) Research and data gathering as bases for policy planning. Presentation at the Natl Policy on Disability workshop, October 2003, Kabul.

UBAIDI, Zarghoona (1991) Dari: Problem hai malooliat. [Problems of Disability] (Based on part of WERNER, D. Disabled Village Children, q.v.) Kabul: ILO. (37 pp.)

UNDP/DAP Report of Seminar on Disabled Afghans Project, 4–7 June 1993. Peshawar: UNDP/Disabled Afghans Project.

UNESCO (2000) Pushto: Afghanistan Teacher Education Series (ATES): Educational Psychology, Child Psychology and Pedagogy (draft version). Islamabad. 74 pp.

UNESS (1993) Statistical Report of the Survey of the Disabled in Afghanistan. Kabul: UN Employment Support Services.

UNICEF (1998) EPI Programme Review in 6 regions of Afghanistan (Kabul, Herat, Ghazni, Nangarhar, Bamyan, Kandahar). UNICEF, WHO. 82 pp.

UNICEF (2000) Planning Workshop on Communication for polio eradication, EPI and surveillance in Afghanistan. Islamabad: UNICEF. 47 pp.

UNICEF (2001) Guide for Rapid Needs Assessment of Vulnerable Afghans: a quantitative approach to social development planning. Islamabad: UNICEF. 30 pp.

UNOCA (1990) Third Consolidated Report. Geneva. 245 pp.
Disability services and prospects under the UN umbrella at October 1990 are reviewed on pp. 81–82, and also under Health (pp. 69–80), Vocational Rehab. (pp. 88 89) and Disadvantaged Groups (pp. 90–91).

VAN DER MERWE, K. (1979, Transl. 1989) Dari: Amozesh az teriq boziha, Transl. by Sadia Ansari [Learning through Play. The Hague: Bernard van Leer Fndn]. Peshawar: IRC Mother & Child Centres. 37 pp. Plan and description of a children's developmental play centre, with rationale and designs.

WAHDAT, Hayatullah (1998) Economic Integration of Disabled People: the Afghan experience. Peshawar: CDAP. 19 pp.

WAHIDI M.G., ALHAM S. & WAHDAT H. (1999) Mission Report 12 July – 4 August 1999, Kabul / Wardak: Inclusive Education, Orthopaedic Technology. Peshawar: CDAP. 21 pp.

WARDAK, Abdullah, FAIZ, Ihsan M. & TURMUSANI, Majid (2003) Disability policy development in Afghanistan: towards barrier–free society. [Bangkok, UNESCAP].

WAZIRI, Rafiq (1973) Symptomatology of depressive illness in Afghanistan. Amer. J. Psychiatry 130 (2) 213–17.

WERNER, D. (1989) Disabled Village Children. Palo Alto: Hesperian Foundation. 654 pp.
Dari extracts Transl. by M. Hashim Ataiee, Chigoonah metawan atfal e natawan ra kumak kard [How Can We Help Disabled Children] (1989). Peshawar: Sandy Gall Afghanistan Appeal. 174 pp. Some other parts have also been Transl. to Dari at RBTU.
Pushto: some parts have been Transl. at RBTU, e.g. chapter 46, Playgrounds for All Children.
Werner's original is a gold mine of information, based on village experiences.

WHITEHEAD B. (1996) Love in a war zone: the work of VISA in Afghanistan. The Educator 9 (June) 27–31.

WHO Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (2001) World Health Day 2001. Stop Exclusions – Dare to Care. Country profiles – Afghanistan. At:–AFG.htm (accessed June 2002)

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