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Disability & Social Responses in Afghanistan & Pakistan

Introduction & Bibliography, mainly non–medical, with historical material and some annotation

Compiled, introduced and annotated by M. Miles
West Midlands, UK

For a list of abbreviations used in this document, consult the glossary.

Pakistan (1947 onward)

ABBAS, Rabeya (1969) Social Welfare Administration in Pakistan. Lahore: Alhamra Academy. 83 pp.

ABDULLAH, Tahira (1981) The Situation of Disabled Children in Pakistan. Islamabad: UNICEF. 31 pp.
Based on interviews in February 1981 with 91 persons in government and NGOs, in Islamabad and the provincial capitals.

ABEDI, Rashida (1988) From Sound to Silence. London: Hobo Press. 45 pp.
Deaf biography.

ABSA Research Group (1987) A Dictionary of Sign Language (Focus on Karachi). Karachi: Anjuman Behbood-e-Samat-e-Atfal. xii + 119 + xvi pp.
English, Urdu & Sign. Produced with Nordic technical assistance. (See: AHMED S.I., 1989; PAKISTAN Natl Inst. Spec. Educ., 1991; Pakistan Assoc. Deaf; SULMAN & ZUBERI; ZESHAN, 1996–2000).

ABSA Research Group (1989) Time and Seasons in Sign Language. Karachi: ABSA. 54 pp.

AFZAL, Mohammad (1992) Disability prevalence and correlates in Pakistan: a demographic analysis. Pakistan Development Review 31 (3) 217–57.
Detailed study of data from the 1981 National Census, and the Survey of Disabled Persons 1984–85 (See PAKISTAN. Federal Bureau of Statistics, 1986).

AFZAL, Shamim (1979) The deaf and mute from infancy to rehabilitation. In: PAKISTAN. Min. Hlth & Soc. Welf. Report of Natl Workshop ...Handicapped Child (q.v.) 18–25.

AGBOATWALLA M. (1992) A Study of Paralytic Poliomyelitis in the Paediatric Age Group. M.D. Thesis. Dow Med. Coll., Karachi.
(For Pakistan polio studies in the present bibliography, see also: AGBOATWALLA et al.; BHUTTA; BHUTTA & IQBAL; CDC; EDITORIAL; GHAFOOR; ISOMURA et al.; MILES, 1989; RAFI et al.; RASHID; SYED; WYATT; WYATT & REHMAN. In Afghanistan: CDC; FISCHER; GODOY et al.; GREETHAM; LAMBERT et al.; UNICEF, 2000).

AGBOATWALLA M., HABIB Z., HUSSAIN M., ZULFIQAR Z. & AKRAM D. (1995) Management of pediatric patients with acute poliomyelitis: a descriptive study on 39 children in Pakistan. Pediatric Physical Therapy 7: 167–71.

AHMAD A. (1979) Sex differential mortality, health care and family planning: a study of the status of women in the NWFP of Pakistan. Unpubl. doctoral thesis, Faculty of Medicine, Univ. London.

AHMAD A., JAN H., & NISAR (1989) Child labour and exploitation. In: Report of the seminar (q.v.) 26.

AHMAD, Akhtar (1979) Action programme for special education, vocational training, legislation and impact of existing services in the field of the handicapped. In: PAKISTAN. Min. Hlth & Soc. Welf.. Report of Natl Workshop...Handicapped Child (q.v.) 72–76.

AHMAD, Anjum B., AYUB M., & TAREEN K.I. (1991) Etiology, psychological morbidity and associated impairments in severe mental retardation. Pakistani J. Child Mental Health 1: 8–18.
Study of 32 children attending a special school.

AHMAD, Syed Naseer (1988) Rehabilitation of disabled in Pakistan. In: PAKISTAN. DGSE Spec. Educ. Bulletin , 15–18.

AHMAD, Farrukh Z. (1993) Mental Health and Patterns of Child Rearing. Univ. Karachi.

AHMED, Qazi Irshad (1988) Specialised services for the physically and mentally handicapped. In: S.H.. Ahmed (Ed.) Psychiatry in Pakistan, 98–101. Karachi: PPS (Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre).

AHMED, Tauseef (1995) The population of persons with disabilities in Pakistan. Asia–Pacific Population J. 10 (1) 39–62.

AHMED, Syed Iftikhar (1989) Pakistan Sign Language. Islamabad: Sir Syed Deaf Assoc. 255 pp.
Sign language lexicon based on usage in northern Pakistan. (See: ABSA, 1987, 1989; PAKISTAN Natl Inst. Spec. Educ., 1991; Pakistan Assoc. of the Deaf; SULMAN & ZUBERI; ZESHAN 1996–2000).

AHMED, Syed Nasir (1988) Part of the Government for Uplift of Disabled in Pakistan. Aadarsh Monthly, 2 (17–18) 48–50.
Summary by ex Director General of Spec. Educ.

AJMAL, Mohammad (1978) The value of creative playing and cultural experiences. The Pakistan Times, 22nd Dec.

AJMAL M. (1986) Interiority. In: Muslim Contributions to Psychotherapy and other essays 21–27. Islamabad: NIP.
Discusses importance of the child archetype in Islamic Humanism.

AKBAR, Nuzhat & RUBAB, Nuzhat (1995) Impact of outreach services on mentally handicapped children. In: Proceedings of 6th Annual Conf. of Bazm–i–Nafsiyat, March 1995, 3–19. Lahore: Bazm–i–Nafsiyat.
Describes and assesses the effects on 40 children spending from one to three years in a home–visiting scheme using Portage Project materials.

AKBAR, Raja M. (1989) A Survey of Special Education Facilities for the Handicapped Children in Pakistan. Unpubl. M.A. thesis, Dept Educ. Plng & Mngmt, Allama Iqbal Open Univ., Islamabad. vi + 96 pp. (including 20 pp. appendices)
Report on mailed questionnaire survey with data from 90 special schools and institutions, with some background and discussion.

AKHTAR, Tasleem (1989) Child abuse – What needs to be done. In: Report of the seminar (q.v.) 38–43.

ALAM, Syed Ahmad (1969) A study of the dreams of blind persons. Pakistan Psychl Studies 1 (1) 114–17. (Univ. Peshawar)
Based on interviews with 50 blind and partially sighted adults and children.

ALI, Isfana Juzar (1988) Child and adolescent psychiatry. In: S.H. Ahmed (Ed.) Psychiatry in Pakistan 22–24. Karachi: PPS.

ALI M., SHAHAB S., USHIJIMA H. & DE MUYNCK A. (2004) Street children in Pakistan: a situational analysis of social conditions and nutritional status. Soc. Science & Medicine 59: 1707–17.

ALI, Shahid M. & MULLEY, Graham P. (1998) Is the Barthel Scale appropriate in non–industrialized countries? A view of rural Pakistan. Disab. & Rehab. 20: 195–99.
A scale often used in industrialised countries to measure performance in Daily Living Activities was found inappropriate on many items in a survey of 24 rural Pakistanis (16 women, 8 men) who suffered impairments after a stroke.

ALLAMA IQBAL Open Univ. (1986) (Documents for the First National Workshop on Special Education & Distance Learning. Islamabad.)

ALLAMA IQBAL Open Univ., Faculty of Educ. (1986) M.Ed. / Diploma in Special Education. Course Outline. (mimeo) 16 pp.

ANIS–UR–REHMAN (1990) Community or institutional care. Pakistan J. Med. Research 29: 1–2.

ANIS–UR–REHMAN (1992). A caring society. Peshawar: Frontier Post.
Reprinted items, including a case report of sexual abuse of a girl (pp. 30–31), titled "Thoughts of an Abused Child," and articles on a blind man and "The cry of an epileptic."

ANSARI, Ali Muhammad (1975) Disabled beggars & vagrants. In: Proceedings of First Conf. (q.v.) 71–77.

ANSARI, Zafar Afaq (1989) Research on child development in the National Institute of Psychology. In: S. Pervez (Ed.) (q.v.) 142–70.

ANSARI Z.A. (2002) Parental acceptance–rejection of disabled children in non–urban Pakistan. North Amer. J. Psychl 4: 121–28.

ANSARI Z.A. & IFTIKHAR M.N. (1984) Validity of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices for urban and rural school children in Pakistan. Part I: Basic facts. Islamabad: NIP.

ANSARI Z.A., TARIQ P.N., ZAMAN R., et al. (Ed.s) (1985) New Directions in Pakistani Psychology. Islamabad: PPA.

ANWAR, Muhammad (1982) Maternity and Child Care in Rural Mianwali. Lahore UNICEF. 80 pp.
Views of 589 rural female respondents, on child health, nutrition, education.

ANWAR, M. & NAEEM, Muhammad (1980) Situation of Children in Rural Punjab. Unpublished study. Lahore: Dept Sociology, Univ. Punjab, with UNICEF. 114 pp.
Mainly descriptive interview survey. Focus on women & young children, health, schooling.

ANWAR U.L. HAQ M., AHMAD, Ashfaq; CHEEMA, M. Asghar; ZAFAR, M. Iqbal & TAHIR G.G. (1989) Family size and sex preference among women in rural Pakistan. J. Rural Development & Administration, 21 (3) 41–58.

ARORA R.B. (Ed.) (1987) Development of Unani Drugs from Herbal Sources and the Role of Elements in their Mechanism of Action. Hamdard Natl Foundation Monograph 1985, republished as Hamdard Medicus XXX (No.s 1–2, Jan–Jun 1987), Karachi. xi + 256 pp.
Section 4, pp. 211–226, comprise three papers on ‘Herbal Drugs for Mental Subnormality.’ (See SAXENA, and BOHRA & ARORA. Many disabled children in Pakistan are prescribed Unani treatments).

ÅSBERG R. (1973) Primary Education and National Development. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. Educational research based mainly in Punjab, Pakistan.

ASGHAR, Mobin (1991) Sad days for the happy generation. Pakistani J. Child Mental Health 2: 169–174.
Discusses child sexual abuse, imprisonment, child labour, and educational inadequacies in Pakistan.

ASGHAR, Zia–ud–Din (1986) All My Tomorrows Depend on Your Love. 5 Years of National Society for Mentally and Emotionally Handicapped Children. Lahore. 40 pp.
Activities of an organisation running a special school in Lahore.

Association for Rehabilitation of the Physically Disabled (1993) Directory of Special Education Centres, Non–Government Organizations (NGOs) Working with Disabilities in NWFP . Peshawar: ARPD. 45 pp.
Approximately 65 special schools, centres and organisations (including Parent–Teacher Associations at schools) with contact details and types of services, in North–West Frontier Province.

AWAN, Muhammad Munir (1982) The causes of anxiety in school going handicapped children. Unpubl., Govt Coll., Lahore.

AWAN, Nusrat Riaz (1979) Role of social legislation to provide development opportunities to handicapped children. In: PAKISTAN. Min. Hlth & Soc. Welf. Report of Natl Workshop... Handicapped Child (q.v.) 11–14.

AWAN N.R. (1985) Education of mentally handicapped in Sind. In: PAKISTAN. DGSE Report on Natl Coordination Conf. (q.v.) 27–39.

AZHAR, Lubna, TAREEN, Asma & TAREEN, Khalida (1996) Toy library. A new dimension in the habilitation of children with developmental delays. Paper presented at the Regional Meeting of World Psychiatric Assoc., March 1996, Lahore.

AZIZ, Hasan, AWAN, Nusrat & HASAN, K. Zaki (1975) Vocational training of the mentally retarded. In: Proceedings of First Conf. (q.v.) 41–44.

AZIZ H., ALI S.M., & HASAN K.Z. (1994) Epilepsy in Pakistan: a population–based epidemiologic study. Epilepsia 35 (5) 950–58.

AZIZ H., AKHTAR, Syed Wasim, & HASAN K.Z. (1997) Epilepsy in Pakistan: stigma and psychosocial problems. A population–based epidemiological study. Epilepsia 38: 1069–73.

AZIZ M.A. (1968) Child rearing practice and mental health in Pakistan. Pakistan Med. Review 3 (3) 51–56.

BADR E HARAM & EDWIN, Alwin (1982) Terminologies in various local languages about disabilities, impairments, handicaps, special education and rehabilitation... etc. Unpubl. document of FAMH / UNICEF Community Rehab. Development Project. Peshawar: MHC 4 pp.

BAKSH, Sohail & AFGHAN, Safiullah (1990) Promotion of mental health through school health programme. In: M.H. Mubbashar & A.R. Syed (Ed.s) Mental Health for All (q.v.) Vol. 1: 362–71.

BASHIR A. (1992) Severe mental retardation. Pakistan J. Clinical Psychiatry 2 (1) 7–8.

BASHIR, A. Chaudhary et al (1978) Survey of Disabled Persons in Four Urban Areas of Pakistan. Islamabad: Min. Hlth & Soc. Welf.

BAVINGTON, John (1984) A Frontier Mental Health Venture. Paper presented at the 5th International Psychiatric Conference, Peshawar, Dec. 1984. Peshawar: Mental Health Centre.

BEG, Raihana R., AHMED, Akhtar, HASAN, Zainab, RIAZ, Nusrat, HASAN, Meher, HASAN, K. Zaki (1971) Factors influencing the habilitation of the retardates, JPMA, 20: 52 61.
Study of 40 children at two day centres; part of a ten–year study in Karachi.

BHATTI K.M. (1986) Annotated Bibliography of Social Research in Pakistan. Peshawar: Pakistan Academy for Rural Development.
540 annotations in 141 pp. Stronger on rural development and administration.

BHATTI M.A., KHALID H., SHIREEN S., & SAEED F. (1988) Female Teachers in Rural Pakistan (Problems and Remedies). Islamabad: Natl Educ. Cncl, Min. Educ., GoP

BHUTTA, Tariq Iqbal (1990) Report of an Epidemic in Southern Punjab. (Unpublished, Dept Paediatric Medicine, Nishtar Hospital, Multan)

BHUTTA T.I. & IQBAL I. (1988) Paralytic poliomyelitis in Southern Punjab. A perspective on EPI programme. Pakistan Ped. J. XII (4) 227–38.

BHUTTO, Mansoor Hussain (1985) Education of mentally handicapped in Sind. In: PAKISTAN. DGSE Report on Natl Coord. Conf. (q.v.) 40 63.

BOHRA, Neelam K. & ARORA R.B. (1987) Possible role of elements in beneficial effects of AH–II (a zinc–rich herbal extract) on intellectual functioning of children. Hamdard Medicus XXX (1–2) 219–26 & plates.
Unani treatments. (See comments on ARORA (Ed.).

BROLIN L.A. (2000) How can boys and girls with disabilities best be reached? Save the Children Sweden, Stockholm, 39 pp. ISBN 91–89366–49–2.
Detailed and comparative evaluation report of service delivery programs supported by Save the Children Sweden, for people with disabilities in rural Pakistan and in Afghanistan.

BUDE, Udo & HABIB–UR–REHMAN (1987) What Did You Learn in School Today? Monitoring classroom interactions in Pakistani Government and Afghan refugee primary schools in the North–West Frontier Province. Peshawar: Pak–German BASED Project. 152 pp.

BUDE U. (1990) Improving Primary School Teaching. An evaluation of the field based teacher development programme in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. Dok 1597 C/a. Bonn: Deutsche Stiftung fur internationale Entwicklung. 228 pp.
Detailed report on current teaching practices and teachers' skills. (See also CHOWDHRI S., 1990).

BUSHRA, Khalida, HASSAN, K. Zaki & JAFAREY N.A. (1975) Effects of maternal age on Mongolism. JPMA 25: 195–97.
In 10 years "3,760 mentally retarded cases" were seen in Neuropsychiatry, Jinnah post–graduate Med. Centre, Karachi. Among them, 110 had Down's syndrome.

BUTLER, Loretta (1986) Culture and cognition as correlates of the cognitive development of Pakistani children. Report prepared for the American Institute of Pakistan Studies, Villanova, PA.

CALEB, Oliver (1986) (Urdu) Helping Mentally Retarded People. Peshawar: MHC 64 pp.
Adapted and Transl. from: E.A. Perkins, P.D. Taylor & A.C.M. Capie (1976) Helping the Retarded. Kidderminster: Brit. Inst. Mental Handicap.

CDC (1999) Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication — Pakistan, 1994–1998. MMWR

CDC (2003) Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication — Afghanistan and Pakistan, January 2002–May 2003. MMWR 52 (29)683–85.

CDC (2004) Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication — Afghanistan and Pakistan, January 2003–May 2004. MMWR 53 (28)634–37.

CHAUDHARY, Anwar Hussain (1979) Researches on child development in the Institute of Education & Research. In: Pervez (Ed.)(q.v.) 70–108.

CHAUDHRY, Muhammad Ashraf (1979) The Problems of Children in Pakistan. Islamabad: Natl Council for Social Welfare.

CHAUDHRY, Nuzhat P. (1987) Guidelines for development curriculum for the physically disabled children. Prepared for special education schools for physically disabled children. Islamabad: Academy Educnl Plng (Mimeo). 88 pp.

CHEEMA R.N. (1986) Attitudes towards persons with physical disabilities. Dept Sociology, Univ. Punjab, Lahore. Unpubl.

Child Development Observation Charts. (Urdu: Maharaton ka chart aur nisab ka khulasa) (1990, 2nd revision). 48 pp. Peshawar: MHC

Children: Development Trends in Pakistan. Islamabad: UNICEF
Serial, of which 11 issues were published, 1982–86.

CHOWDHRI, Shaheen (1982) An Experiment with Under–Achievers. Islamabad: NIP

CHOWDHRI S. (1985) Report of an experimental project for the study of drop–outs through innovative inputs in rural primary schools, Islamabad. Islamabad: NIP.

CHOWDHRI S. (1987) Pakistani underachievers: behavioural characteristics and effects of an intervention programme. Pakistan J. Psychological Research 2 (1/2) 41–50.
Observation and remedial activities with 17 underachieving pupils.

CHOWDHRI S. (1990) A study of teachers' content knowledge in the Primary School subjects. Annex to BUDE U. (1990) (q.v.) pp. 195–204.
Comparing knowledge and understanding among teachers trained in ordinary college courses, and in the field–based teacher development programme. Results suggest that the field–based training was superior for Urdu, but not for science and maths.

CURRER, Alan & CURRER, Caroline (1991) A Community Approach to Mental Health. Peshawar: MHC ix + 107 pp.
Revised edition of report on a Community Mental Health Scheme (1976–1977) including some work with people having mental retardation.

Directory of Rehabilitation Services to Disabled Afghans in Pakistan (1991) Peshawar: UNOCA & ACBAR Task Force. iv + 23 pp.
Details of 23 organisations providing medical, educational or vocational rehab. services.

Disability and Community Based Rehabilitation. Curriculum for 11 Day Course for CHS and CHW. (1989) Revision 1, Working Draft. Peshawar: Save the Children Fund U.K. 100 pp.
Designed for Afghan refugees, but culturally appropriate for North–West Frontier Province of Pakistan.

Discover the Working Child, it's a beginning. The Situation of Child Labour in Pakistan (1990). Islamabad: UNICEF & Natl Commis. Child Welf. & Development. 27 pp.

DOSANJH J.S. (1976) A comparative study of Punjabi and English child rearing practices with special reference to Lower Juniors (7–9 Years). Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Nottingham, U.K.

DURKIN, Maureen, DAVIDSON, Leslie, HASAN, Meher, KHAN, Naila, THORBURN, Marigold & ZAMAN, Sultana (1990) Screening for childhood disabilities in community settings. In: Thorburn & Marfo (Ed.s) (q.v.) 179–97.
Multi–country study including Pakistan.

DURKIN M.S., DAVIDSON L.L., DESAI P., HASAN Z.M. et al. (1994) Validity of the Ten Questions Screen for childhood disability: results from population–based studies in Bangladesh, Jamaica and Pakistan. Epidemiology 5 (3) 283–89.

DURKIN M.S., HASAN Z.M., & HASAN K.Z. (1995) The ten questions screen for childhood disabilities: its uses and limitations in Pakistan. J. Epidemiology & Community Health 49 (4) 431–36.

DURKIN M.S., HASAN Z.M., & HASAN K.Z. (1998) Prevalence and correlates of mental retardation among children in Karachi, Pakistan. Amer. J. Epidemiology 147: 281–88.

DURKIN M.S., ISLAM S., HASAN Z.M., & ZAMAN S.S. (1994) Measures of socioeconomic status for child health research: comparative results from Bangladesh and Pakistan. Soc. Sci. & Medicine 38 (9) 1289–97.

DURRANI, Muhammad Akhtar (1963) Islamic teachings pertaining to blindness. In: Grant (Ed.) (q.v.) 77–80.

EDHI, Abdul Sattar (as told to Tehmina DURRANI) (1996) A Mirror to the Blind. An autobiography. Islamabad: Natl Bureau of Publications. 388 pp.
Maulana Edhi has been Pakistan's best known front–line social worker, serving and strengthening the poor, the injured, the mentally ill and the downtrodden, while denouncing bureaucrats and resisting attempts by powerful people and organisations to co–opt his work or incorporate him in their empires. As a boy in the 1930s, in a small town near Bombay, he learnt to be charitable toward those who were handicapped or destitute, and to defend mentally disturbed people against street bullies (pp. 27–29). One of his ambitions was to "build a village for the handicapped" (p. 34). Years later, living in Karachi, Edhi and his wife Bilquise ran a kind of asylum for mentally distressed or handicapped people, among many other activities (pp. 222–28, 237–38).

EDITORIAL (1995) Provocation–aggravation poliomyelitis. Pakistan Pediatric J. 19: 13.

EKLINDH, Kenneth (2001) Proposals for the Development of Special Needs Education in Pakistan. Prepared for the Ministry of Women Development, Social Welfare and Special Education. Islamabad. 32 pp. + annexures (25 pp.).

FAROOQI, Salman (1988, 6 April) Educational uplift of the disabled. The Pakistan Times, 4, 5.
Summary by ex Director General of Spec. Educ.

FATIMA, Munawar (1997) (Adaptation of Portage Home based programme in Pakistan.) Islamabad (DGSE)
Portage materials have been produced in Urdu and field tested over some years, by M. Fatima. (Exact title unclear)

FICHTNER, Dorothea (1979) How to Raise a Blind Child, 0–7. Bensheim, FRG: Christoffel Blinden Mission.
Based partly on work in Pakistan. For Urdu version see S. MASUD.

FINKENFLÜGEL, Harry (Ed.) (1993) The Handicapped Community. The relation between primary health care and community based rehabilitation. Amsterdam: VU Press.
(See chapters by JAFFER, LEOTARD, MILES, MURK, & OGILVIE, on community based rehab. in four provinces of Pakistan).

FINNSTAM J., GRIMBY G., NELSON G., & RASHID S. (1988) Evaluation of community–based rehabilitation in Punjab, Pakistan: 1: Use of the WHO manual, ‘Training disabled people in the community.’ Intl Disab. Studies 10: 54–58.

Formative Years. Bulletin of Child Mental Health. Lahore: Socy for Mentally & Emotionally Handicapped Children. 1986 – #.

FRASER, Brian C. (1987) Education for Deaf Children in Pakistan. (Pak/999/29) Consultant report. London: Brit. Cncl. Unpubl. 16 pp.
Detailed, perceptive comments by a British teacher trainer, after visits to nine schools and discussions at local and national level. "In all schools visited speech and lip–reading were the practised mode of communication whilst we were in the classroom. ... Discussions are under way to establish some sort of standardized signing system. This seems to be being done without reference to the adult deaf community. ... R.B. established links with an association of deaf men in Rawalpindi and together we met two of these people. It was very evident that a thriving and dynamic sign language existed and that it was unlikely to be influenced by any committee invented codes..." (p. 13)

GADIT, Amin A. & KHALID, Najeeb (2002) State of Mental Health in Pakistan: service, education and research. Karachi: Hamdard Univ. Hospital. 93 pp.

GILBERT F. (1974) National school for the deaf, Pakistan. Teacher of the Deaf 72: 393–95.

GHAFFAR N. (1991) Problems of physically handicapped female children. Unpubl. M.A. diss., Univ. Peshawar.

GHAFOOR, Abdul (1990) Poliomyelitis in Southern Punjab. (Unpublished. Reports and Documents at Federal EPI Cell, Natl Inst. Health, Islamabad).

GHUMAN PAS (1978) Nature of intellectual development of Punjabi children. Intl J. Psychl 13 (4) 281–94.

GRANT, Isabelle L.D. (Ed.) (1963) Handbook for Teachers and Parents of Blind Children in Pakistan. A Seminar Report. Lahore: Ilmi Press. 91 pp. (Lib. of Cong. NUC 68–7283).
Chapter on ‘Integration in Pasrur’ by Dr Grant, pp. 74–76, tells of several years' success in integrating 7 blind children among 600 in an ordinary school.

GRIMA, Benedicte (1993) The Performance of Emotion among Paxtun Women. "The misfortunes which have befallen me." Karachi: Oxford UP. ISBN 0–19–577498–1. xi + 241 pp.
Detailed accounts of how Pakhtun women conceptualise and manage adversity.

GUL, Gulzar A. (1979) The learner centred approach in education as a function of our national objective. In: Ansari et al. (q.v.) 170.

HABIBULLAH, S.M. (1975) Education of the hearing handicapped. In: Proceedings of the First Conference on the Disabled: "The Handicapped – A Challenge to Action", Karachi, 1975, 117–120. Karachi: Evaluation & Research Unit, Direct orate Social Welfare, Govt Sind. x + 191 pages (incl. appendices)
At Pakistan's first major conference on disability, this speaker gave his "Fundamental Principles," which began: "1. All the Deaf & Dumb children cannot learn speech." (But speech should be taught to those who could learn it.) "2. Sign Language must be taught to all those students who fail to learn speech even after very best efforts. 3. Students who pick up speech and learn language should not be allowed gesticulations." Though given a very subordinate and regretted place, this was one of the earliest published declarations in Pakistan that Sign Language must have some place in education of deaf children.

HAFEEZ, Sabeeha (1980 ?) Children and their environment, Kandro–Thatta (Sind). Univ. Karachi, Dept Sociology, 69 pp.
(One of a series of studies by Hafeez, on children in different parts of rural and urban Sind)

HAFEEZ S. (1991) Child labour in Pakistan: a sociological analysis. In: The Changing Pakistan Society, 277–317. Karachi: Royal Book Co.
Based on the author's studies in Sind c. 1978–80.

HAIDER S.S. (1971) A plan for training the mentally retarded in developing countries: Pakistan. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (240 pp.)
Useful observations on child–rearing and play in rural Pakistan, and proposals for practical adaptation of ordinary activities to teach mentally handicapped persons. (Haider's base was the rural town of Gujrat, Punjab). The thesis was ahead of its time, and unfortunately was unknown in Pakistan during the 1980s.

HAK, Said K. (1959) Social Welfare in West Pakistan. Lahore: West Pakistan Soc. Welf. Cncl
Brief notes on services for lepers, blind and physically disabled people (pp. 15–17, 47–49, 136–39) and relevant legislation (pp. 178–89). Registered social welfare organisations are listed, with details, in an Appendix of 61 pp.

HAK S.K. (1966) New Horizons in Social Welfare Services in West Pakistan. Lahore: Govt Press.

HANIF, Rubina (1994) Behavioural problems of abused and non–abused children. Unpubl. M.Phil. thesis, NIP, Islamabad.

HAQ, Khadija et al. (2000) Human Development in South Asia. The Gender Question. Oxford UP. xiv + 219 pp.

HAQUE, Abdul (1987) Social class differences in perceived maternal acceptance rejection and personality dispositions among Pakistani children. In: C. Kagitcibasi (Ed.) Growth and Progress in Cross Cultural Psychology 189–95. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger B.V.

HAQUE A (2000) Development of Psychology in Pakistan. In: A.E. Kazdin (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Psychology, VI: 27–32. Oxford UP.

HASAN, Khwaja Zaki (1971) Research in Mental Retardation. Final Report. Karachi: Jinnah Postgraduate Med. Centre. 176 pp. + 21 pp. appendices.
Pakistan's first major research on mental retardation. Largely biomedical, but reports studies of rehab. activities (pp.94–108), social competence measurements (pp.129–36), service planning (pp.143–51) and the curriculum of a day–centre (Appendix B, pp.1–11).

HASAN K.Z. (1975) Vocational training for the disabled. In: Proceedings of First Conf. (q.v.) 136–39.
Also in: PAKISTAN. Min. Hlth & Soc. Welf. (1979) Report of Natl Workshop... Handicapped Child (q.v.) 69–71.

HASAN K.Z. (1980) Special laws on rehabilitation of the handicapped children. In: Report of the National Workshop on "Child Legislation," Islamabad, Pakistan, October 1979 24–29. Islamabad: Min. Hlth & Soc. Welf.

HASAN K.Z. (1981) Report on a population survey of mental retardation in Pakistan. Intl J. Mental Health 10: 23–27.

HASAN K.Z. (1991) Child Mental Health. Problems and prospects using primary health care. Pakistani J. Child Mental Health 2: 90–101.

HASAN, S. Sibte (1988) The influence of culture on the development of thought. In: S.H. Ahmed (Ed.) Psychiatry in Pakistan 12 16. Karachi: PPS.

HASAN, Zainab Meher, JABEEN, Zohra & FATIMA, Munawar (1974) Introduction of behaviour modification techniques with retarded children. JPMA 12: 268–73.
Part of the earliest formal research studies on Spec. educ. in Pakistan, conducted at Karachi.

HASAN Z.M. (1975) Developing a total programme for the mentally retarded. In: Proceedings of First Conf. (q.v.) 45–54.
Also in: PAKISTAN. Min. Hlth & Soc. Welf. (1979) Report of Natl Workshop... Handicapped Child (q.v.) 51–58.

HASAN Z.M. (Ed.) (1981) Souvenir. Association for Children with Emotional & Learning Problems. Karachi. 25 pp.

HASAN Z.M. (1988) Developing a screen for Rapid Epidemiological Assessment for childhood disabilities. In: Proceedings of Seventh Intl Psychiatric Conf. 210–14. PPS.

HASHIMI, S. Ahaz Muhammad (1975) Legal and administrative aspects of rehabilitation of disabled persons. In: Proceedings of First Conf. 146–56.

HASHMI S.H. (Ed.) (1989) The State of Social Sciences in Pakistan. Islamabad: Quaid–i–Azam Univ. ix + 362 pp.
Proceedings of a conference held May 1988, Islamabad. Includes chapters on psychology, sociology and education, by senior researchers.

HASSAN, Iftikhar N. (1977) The socio–cultural variables of drop–out syndrome in rural primary schools of Pakistan. Islamabad: NIP

HASSAN I.N. (1979) Planning, organisation and implementation of guidance services in fifty schools of Federal area of Islamabad and vicinity. Islamabad: NIP.

HASSAN I.N. (1979) General features of psychopathology found amongst primary school children of federal area schools, Islamabad. In: Proceedings of Fourth Session, Karachi 1979 34–45. Islamabad: PPA; and NIP.
Study of 82 pupils with problems. Discusses need for guidance & counselling services in Pakistan.

HASSAN I.N. (1985) Psychological profile of Pakistani women in the light of developmental social stereotypes. In: Ansari et al. (q.v.) 17 21.
Questionnaire study of 200 urban & rural schoolgirls. Discusses women in Pakistani cultures.

HASSAN I.N. [1992] An overview of Muslim spiritual therapy and other practices in dealing with mental health problems in Pakistan. In: M.H. Mubbashar & A.R. Syed (Ed.s) Mental Health in Developing Countries. Vol. 2: 140– 51.

HASSAN, Javed (1991) Disabled people and attitudinal barriers. In: D. Drieger (Ed.) Disabled People in International Development, 7–11. Winnipeg: COPOH. (Reprinted from Vox Nostra No. 2 (1990).)

HENEVELD, Ward, & HASAN, Parween (1989) Evaluation of Sind School Improvement Programme. Geneva: Aga Khan Foundation. Unpubl. 62 pp.

HISAM, Zeenat (1984) Neglect of girls the only explanation for Pakistan's unusual male: female population balance. Children: Development Trends in Pakistan, Spec. issue 1984, 10 11.

HUNZAI, S. Gul (1993) An Epidemiological Study of Disabled Children in Pakistan. Lahore: Ferozons. ISBN 969 0 10144 7. viii + 141 pp.
Data on 517 disabled children aged under 16 years, enrolled in 58 special schools of Pakistan.

HUSAIN I. (1988) Eye Donation for the Corneal Blind: 27 years' struggle in Pakistan. Karachi: Pakistan Eye Bank Socy 153 pp.

HUSSAIN A., KHAN M.A., QAZI S.A., & RAHMAN G.N. (1991) Neurology in Islamabad Children's Hospital – present status and problems. Kuruma Med. J. 38: 291–94.

HUSSAIN J. (1989) Patterns of mental illness in rural Sukkur division: a guideline for primary health care. In: Proceedings of the Seventh Intl Psychiatric Conf. 67–70. Karachi: PPS.

KISHWAR, Ijaz & MIRZA, Ashfaq (1982) An assessment of the problems of health, nutrition and education of rural mothers and children. Faisalabad: Dept Rural Sociology, Univ. Agriculture. 116 pp. + appendices.

IKRAM, Ameer (1986) Effectiveness of the "Token Economy Technique" as a method of teaching manual work ... to mentally retarded children. Unpubl., Univ. Punjab, Lahore.

INAYATULLAH (1989) Social sciences in Pakistan. An evaluation. Intl Soc. Sci. J., 41 (4) 617–33.

Information Awareness and Understanding for the Integration of Disabled Persons & Society, April 1984, Lahore. (Workshop Report). Lahore: Pakistan Socy for Rehab. of the Disabled. 57 pp.

ISOMURA S., AGBOATWALLA M. & AKRAM D.S. (1996) Epidemiology of poliomyelitis in Karachi, Pakistan: prospective studies during 1990–1993. Acta Paediatrica Japan 38: 667–71.

ISRAR, Mohammad (1982) Patterns of language used in parent child interactions in Pakistani society. Islamabad: NIP. 28 pp.

ISRAR M. (1985) Cognitive development of Pakistani primary school children: salient findings of a research project. In: Ansari et al. (q.v.) 67–74.
Overview of five years' work on Piagetian stages in Pakistani children. Shows gaps between cognitive demands of school books and children's abilities.

ISRAR, Nargis (1987) A cognitive development task battery for primary school children of Pakistan. In: M. Pervez & N. Durrani N. (Ed.) (q.v.).

ISRAR N. (1989) Researches on learning environment and drop out of school children in Pakistan. In: S. Pervez (Ed.) (q.v.) 189 93.

ISRAR N. & ABBAS I. (1990) Test of intellectual development for Pakistani preschool children: development and validation. NIP: Islamabad.

AL–ISSA, Ihsan (Ed.) (2000) Al–Junun: mental illness in the Islamic world. Madison, CT: Intl Universities Press, Inc. xv + 382 pp.
Substantial collection of well–referenced modern chapters on mental illness, with contributions on religion and historical topics (Al–Issa, pp. 3–70 ); Forensic psychiatry and Islamic law (K. Chaleby, 71–98); Algeria (Al–Issa, 101–119); Kuwait & Qatar (M.F. El–Islam, 121–37); Iran (F. Mehrabi et al., 139–61); Malaysia (M.Z. Azhar & S.L. Varma, 163–86); Pakistan (Mubbashar, 187–203); Saudi Arabia (A. Al–Subaie & A. Alhamad, 205–233); and various types of illness and their treatments in Arab and Muslim cultures.

JABIN S. & HASSAN I.N. (1978) A pilot survey on mental retardation in Islamabad. Unpubl. report, NIP.

JAFFER, Rafiq (1981) Epidemiological survey of mental illness in Lahore city. (mimeo) 12 pp. Lahore: Inst. Soc. Sci.
Household heads interviewed in a random sample of 1,480 households having 9,593 members, reported 187 persons having mental illness, among whom 46 (0.48%) were considered mentally handicapped.

JAFFER R. (1985) Report of the community based rehabilitation programme of disabled persons in district Jhelum, Pakistan. Report to UNICEF Lahore. (Mimeo)

JAFFER R. (1989) Modifying attitudes towards persons with mental handicap through audio visual methods, Paper presented at the Seventh Psychological Conf., Lahore, April 1989.

JAFFER R. (1993) Monitoring and evaluation of Community Based Rehabilitation – need for a participatory approach. In: Finkenfluegel (Ed.) (q.v.) 51–64.

JAFFER, Razia (Transl.) (1988) Urdu: Bol chal zaban aur mukhsoos bachay kay sath izhar e khayal. Peshawar: MHC. 63 pp. (Transl. from: C. MILES [1988] [q.v.])

JAFFER R. (Transl.) (1991) Urdu: Zehni pasmanda tulaba kay liye mukhsoos taleem. 338 pp. Peshawar: MHC. (Transl. from: C. MILES [1986, revised 1990] [q.v.])

JAFFER R. (1994) Evaluation report. Rehabilitation Centre for Physically Disabled. Peshawer, NWFP, Pakistan. Lahore: Inst. Soc. Sci. 43 pp.
Based on 7 days' field work at Peshawar & in outreach camps in Swabi & Malakand Agency.

JAFFER R. & JAFFER R. (1983) Report of the community–based disability prevention and rehabilitation programme in Patiala House / Sham Quari Katchi Abadis, Lahore District, Pakistan. Report to UNICEF, Lahore. (Mimeo).

JAFFER R. & JAFFER R. (1986) Report of the community based rehabilitation of disabled person in Daras Barey Mian and Baja Lines Katchi Abadis, Lahore District, Pakistan. Report to UNICEF Lahore. (Mimeo).

JAFFER, Razia & JAFFER, Rafiq (1990) The WHO CBR approach: programme or ideology some lessons from the CBR experience in Punjab, Pakistan. In: Thorburn & Marfo (Ed.s) (q.v.) 277–9 2.
Contrasts activities of a community based special school, with experiences of piloting WHO style ‘community based rehabilitation.’

JAFFER, Rafiq & JAFRI, Qurat–ul–Ain (1989) Special Education in Pakistan: Problems and Opportunities. Paper presented at the Workshop on the Role of Psychologists in Mental Health Programmes, September 1989, Lahore.

JAFFER, Rafiq, WELLE STRAND, Anne & JAFFER, Razia (1990) Inside a Pakistani School. A study of primary schools in the Nathiagali and Mansehra regions of NWFP. Oslo: IMTEC, Intl Learning Cooperative.
Revealing report on classroom activities, staff politics and the quality of teaching in typical rural schools. 56 pp.

JALIL, Fehmida (1981) Mental retardation. A study in an urban slum. In: Natl Seminar on Problems (q.v.) 66–69.

JAVED, Farzana (1994) Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) in Pakistan – an overview. CBR Frontline Digest 1 (1) 33–35. (Bangalore)

JAVED M.A., KUNDI M.Z., & KHAN P.A. (1992) Emotional and behavioural problems among school children in Pakistan. JPMA 42 (8) 181–83.

JICA (2002) Country Profile on Disability. Islamic Republic of Pakistan. JICA.
Annex (52 pp.) lists details of c. 270 disability–related centres, schools, institutions and organisations.

EL JILANI, S.M. (1978) An Introduction to Quranic Psychology. Lahore: Quranic Research Inst. 38 pp. + appendix. Claims (pp. 26–34) the successful treatment of cases of mental retardation and epilepsy, using Quranic therapy

JOKHIO, Inayatullah (1975) Rehabilitation of the orthopaedically handicapped. In: Proceedings of First Conf. (q.v.) 81–85.

KALWAR, Peer Baksh & AHMED, S. Haroon (1989) Child rearing practices in various ethnic groups in Pakistan. In: Proceedings of Seventh Intl Psychiatric Conf. 89–98. Karachi: PPS.

KARIM, Razia F. (1965) Attitudes of Pakistani women towards traditional and developmental child rearing practices. J. Rural Development #. (Pakistan Academy of Rural Development, Peshawar)

KARIM S., SAEED K., RANA M.H., MUBBASHAR M.H. & JENKINS R. (2004) Pakistan mental health country profile. Intl Rev. Psychiatry 16: 83–92.

KASI A.M., PERVEZ Y., BAHADRI T., DOTANA A.R., IQBAL A. (1988) Opium intake and its implications amongst infants and children. Pakistan Ped. J. 12 (1) 31–38.

KAYANI I. (1985) Functioning of community based rehabilitation of disabled persons in Pakistan (district Jhelum). Report to UNICEF, Lahore. (Mimeo).

KAZI, Aftab (1987) Ethnicity and Education in Nation Building. The Case of Pakistan. Lanham: Univ. Press of America. 185 pp.
Scholarly exposition of the neglect of ethnic / cultural factors in the education system.

KAZI, Hyder Ali G. (1985) Epilepsies reviewed. In: Epilepsies 1–20. Hyderabad, Sind: Sir Cowasjee Jehangir Inst. Psychiatry.

KHALID, Humala (1986) Differences between primary students of government and private schools in cognitive development. Unpubl. M.Phil. thesis, NIP.

KHALID, Seema (1985) Child abuse. Unpubl., Govt Coll., Lahore.

KHAN, Amanullah (1963) A comparative study of schemes of education suitable for Pakistan. In: Grant (Ed.) (q.v.) 34–38. (Blindness)

KHAN, Amra M. (1991) Psychotherapy with a child. A case illustration. Pakistani J. Child Mental Health 1: 50–55.

KHAN, Amra & AHMED, Anjum B. (1992) Child abuse. A case report. Pakistani J. Child Mental Health 3: 224–29.
Account of sexual abuse of a 7 year old girl by older brother and another local boy. Poor and apparently dysfunctional family, at Lahore. Mother was aware of the abuse, but afraid to discuss it with anybody.

KHAN, Faryal (1998) Case study of special needs education in Pakistan: the process of inclusion. European J. Special Needs Educ. 13: 98–111.

KHAN, M. Ahmad (1972) Social Welfare Services in North–West Frontier Province. Peshawar: Board of Economic Enquiry, NWFP Publication No. 69. 92 pp.
Disability services comprised 3 schools for "deaf and dumb" at Peshawar and Abbottabad (p. 29), and one welfare NGO at Dera Ismail Khan (p. 81).

KHAN, M. Yaqoob (1991) Child Labour. In: PAKISTAN. Soc. Welf. & Spec. Educ. Division (1991) Bulletin 18–21.

KHAN, Mazhar–ul–Haq (1972) Purdah and Polygamy. A study in the social pathology of the Muslim Society. Peshawar: Nashiran e Ilm o Taraqiyet. viii + 232 pp. (also: Social Pathology of the Muslim Society (1978) Delhi: Amar Prakashan, viii + 196 pp).
Polemic against child rearing practices in the purdah household (pp. 102–46), based on general observation and historical rather than social research.

KHAN, Mushtaq (1985) Keynote Address. In: Report of a seminar on Iodine Deficiency Disorders in Pakistan. Islamabad: UNICEF.

KHAN Q.A. (1966) Administration of Social Welfare in West Pakistan: an analysis and suggestions. Lahore: Pakistan Administrative Staff Coll.

KHAN, Qamar–un–Nisa & MIRZA, Laeeq (1992) Consanguineous Marriages and Disability in Children in Pakistan. Islamabad: Natl Inst. Spec. Educ. viii + 39 pp.
Studies of 1714 disabled children attending 49 special schools.

KHAN, Shaheen (1986) Labour force participation of children: A case study. In: I. Nabi (q.v.) 329 50.

KHAN, Sohaila (1987) Sex differences in field dependence and socialisation in a group of Pakistani children. Pakistan J. Psychl Research, 2 (1–2) 3–16.

KHAN S. (1989) Researches on psychological tests for children in Pakistan. In: Pervez (Ed.) (q.v.) 185–88.

KHAN, Tarique (1994) Khusoosi bachoon ki taleem oo tarbiyat. Lahore: SEPA. 304 pp.
On school, home and social involvement in special education for children within the major disability categories, drawing on many English–language sources and making the results available in Urdu.

KIANI, Aquila, HAIDER, S.M. & INAYATULLAH (1961) An Enquiry into the Factors that Impede Formal Education of Children in Rural Areas. Peshawar: Pakistan Academy for Rural Development. 21 pp.

KOLUCKI, Barbara, MARCHAEL, Kathy & DUNCAN, Barbara (1988) Media and People with Disabilities. A Handbook on "How to improve our communications about people with disabilities." Based on recommendations of the Workshop on "Media and People with Disabilities" Feb. 1988, Islamabad, Pakistan. Islamabad: DGSE, Rehab. Intl & UNICEF. ii + 26 pp.

KOLUCKI B. (1989) Developing Strategies for Communications about Disability: Experiences in the U.S., Hong Kong, India & Pakistan. New York: World Rehab. Fund, Inc.

KULSOOM, Margie (1985) Role and contribution of speech therapy in the education of the deaf. Unpubl. conference paper. 7 pp.

LARI, Zahida S. (1988) The provision and development of special education in Pakistan. Unpubl. M.Ed. diss. Cardiff: Univ. Wales.

LARI Z.S. (1992) Special education in Pakistan: a research report. Intl J. Educnl Development 12: 245–52.
Results of mailed questionnaire survey with data from 32 special schools.

LARI Z.S. (1996) Some aspects of the education of children with special needs in developing countries, with particular reference to Pakistan. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Wales, Cardiff.

LARI Z.S. (1996) Special education in Pakistan. European J. Spec. Needs Educ. 11: 337–51.

LARI Z.S. (2000) The curriculum in the special schools of Pakistan. Intl J. Spec. Educ. 12: 18–30.

LASHARI, M. Saleh (n.d.) Attitudes of parents towards their mentally retarded children. A study of mentally retarded children... conducted at Federal Government Shah Latif Special Education Centre... Hyderabad... 1991–92. Unpubl. 18 pp. type script.

LEOTARD, Isabelle (1993) Outreach rehabilitation in Baluchistan, who does it for whom? In: Finkenfluegel (Ed.) (q.v.) 65–71.
Frank description of outreach attempts, discussing reasons for their failure.

LINDHOLM, Cherry (1982) The Swat Pukhtun family as a political training ground. In: S. Pasteur & L. Flam (Ed.s) Anthropology in Pakistan: recent socio–cultural and archaeological perspectives 51–60. Karachi: Indus; Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. South Asia Program Occasional Papers & Theses.
Child–rearing in Swat, North–West Frontier Province.

LOEWE, Armin (1993) Personal experiences in the early identification, early diagnosis, and early educational management of hearing loss in children in partnership between Federal Republic of Germany and India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Intl J. Spec. Educ. 8: 46–54.

MAHMUD, Sirajul Haq, MAAN A.H., & Habib Ullah (1978) Goitre in Pakistan. Islamabad: GoP, Plng & Development Division (Nutrition cell). 27 pp.
Reviews goitre surveys, discusses aetiological factors and iodine remediation. Mentions disability consequences (p. 14)

MAKHDUM, Sadique Akbar (1961) Special Education in West Pakistan. Educnl pamphlets series No. V. Lahore: West Pakistan Bureau of Educ. ii + 28 + iv pp.
First major publication on spec. educ. post–Independence, giving details of all schools for deaf and for blind pupils. Written by father of a deaf child and founder of one of the earliest schools for deaf children.

MALIK G.Q., RAJA I.A., MASOOD K. & HALEEM A. (1985) Poliomyelitis. Pakistan Paediatric J., 9 (2) 139–42.

MALIK, Irfan Aziz (1987) Special education in Pakistan today. Appendix 1 to the Pakistan Special Education Seminar ... Report (q.v.) 6 pp.

MALIK, Muhammad Hussain (1963) Blind persons in a changing world. In: Grant (Ed.) (q.v.) 83–85.

MALIK, Muhammad Suleman, MASHEER, Shahnaz & ZAFAR, M. Hayat (1984) Mental retardation in children. JPMA 34: 157–59.
Prevalence, aetiology and level of disability in 183 mentally retarded children seen at outpatient dept in Multan.

MALIK S. (1988) Situation of the physically disabled in Pakistan. Report of DPI Asia/Pacific Leadership training seminar for women with disability. Islamabad, November 1987. Islamabad: Disabled People's Federation of Pakistan.

MAQBOOL, Salma (1989) Country report Pakistan – International Meeting on Human Resources in the Field of Disability, Tallinn, Estonia.

MAQBOOL S. (1994) Report of the National Leadership Training Seminar for People with Disabilities, Islamabad, Pakistan.

MAQBOOL S. (1994) Disabled People's International Pakistan. CBR Frontline Digest 1 (1) 31. (Bangalore)

MAQBOOL S. (1999) Situation of disabled women in South Asia, Behinderung und Dritte Welt 10 (2) 61–66.

MASUD, Simin (1982) Mother of a handicapped child (Survey Report) Formative Years, December, 15–18.

MASUD S. (Transl.) (1988) Urdu: Nabeena bachoon key parwarish. Peshawar: MHC. 86 pp. (Transl. from: FICHTNER [1979] [q.v.])

MASUD S. (1993) Selected family factors as predictors of home environment and their effects on the cognitive competence of four to six year old children in Pakistan. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, Michigan State Univ. 171 pp.
Studied 50 children and their mothers in Peshawar.

MEDHI, Mahboob (1992) Torture is endemic in Pakistan. The political and legal history of torture. Torture. Quarterly J. on Rehabilitation of Torture Victims and Prevention of Torture, 2 (1) 12–13.

MEHMOOD, Nargis & PERVEZ, Mohammad (1981) Cognitive Development Task Battery for Class 1 Children. Islamabad: NIP.

MILES, Christine (1986; Revised edn 1990) Special Education for Mentally Handicapped Pupils: A teaching manual. Peshawar: MHC & Palo Alto: Hesperian Foundation. xiv + 263 pp. ERIC Ed 361918.
(Also in Urdu Transl. by JAFFER, 1988, q.v.)

MILES C. (1988) Speech, Language and Communication with the Special Child. Peshawar: MHC. 55 pp.
(This booklet was later incorporated in the revised edition of MILES C., 1986, Special Education etc. q.v.)

MILES C. (1989) How to Teach Reading & Numbers (Urdu). Lahore: Nirali Kitaben.

MILES C. (1991) Mobilising skills for special education in Pakistan: a personal, cross–cultural experience. Intl J. Spec. Educ. 6: 201–12.
Discussion of 11 years training and working with special teachers and other staff.

MILES C. (1991) Family perceptions of children in NWFP. Implications for special education. In: PAKISTAN Soc. Welf. & Spec. Educ. Division (1991) Bulletin 8–11.

MILES C. (1993) Ethnic and linguistic minority children with special needs. A critical review of educational language and culture. In: F. Albrecht & G. Weigt (Ed.s) Behinderte Menschen am Rande der Gesellschaften. Problemstellungen und Lösungstrategien von "Sonderpädagogik Dritte Welt" 175–99. Frankfurt: Verlag für Interkulturelle Kommunikation.

MILES C. (1996) Bilingual children in special education: acquisition of language and culture by British Pakistani children attending a school for pupils with ‘severe learning difficulties.’ Unpubl. M.Phil. thesis, Univ. Birmingham.
Reformatted version (1998) on ERIC 410725.

MILES C. (2000) Imran's Djinn. EPICADEC News No. 16, 9–10.
Working with a Pakistani family holding traditional views about their child's epilepsy.

MILES C. (2002) On working in Peshawar with disabled children and families. J. Religion, Disability & Health 6 (2/3) 145–48.

MILES C. & MILES M. (1993) Children with learning difficulties. In: P. Mittler et al. (Ed.s) World Yearbook of Education 1993. Special Needs Education, 53–64. London: Kogan Page.

MILES M. (1979) Mentally handicapped children in Peshawar. Indian J. Mental Retardation 12 (1/2) 71–77.
Notes on a local survey based on key informants.

MILES M. (1980) A school on the North West Frontier. Brit. J. Spec. Educ. 7 (2) 32–33.

MILES M. (1981) Handicapped Children & Their Needs in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Peshawar: MHC. 30 pp.
Data and discussion from door–to–door survey of disability in 1,340 children & young adults (aged 0–20) in c. 40,000 households in rural towns.

MILES M. (1981) Notes on a handicap strategy for Pakistan. J. Rehab. in Asia 21 (3) 34–39.

MILES M. (1982) Integrated education for handicapped pupils: some practical drawbacks in developing countries. J. Rehab. in Asia 23 (April) 28–32.

MILES M. (1982) Enlisting community support for the mentally handicapped. Formative Years, Dec., 3–9.

MILES M. (1983) Attitudes Towards Persons with Disabilities Following IYDP (1981). With suggestions for promoting positive changes. Peshawar: MHC, for Natl Cncl for Soc. Welf., GoP. 104 pp.
Survey data from 286 urban and rural respondents, with analysis and discussion. ERIC Ed 236826.

MILES M. (1983) Failure to persist with special education. J. Rehab. in Asia, 24 (3) 11–17.
Study on reasons for dropouts from a special school in Peshawar.

MILES M. (1984) Deafness in rural Asia. Volta Review 86: 274–81.
Describes some of the mismatch between the realities of rural Asian deafness and the well–intentioned technological solutions imported from urban Europe.

MILES M. (1984) Sharing information for rehabilitation in the Third World. Development Communication Report 46: 1, 6, 7. Also in: African Rehab. J. (1984) 1 (3) 10–12.

MILES M. (1985) Children with Disabilities in Ordinary Schools. An action study of non designed educational integration in Pakistan. Peshawar: MHC, for Natl Cncl Soc. Welf., GoP. 85 pp. (Also: ERIC Ed 265711).
Teachers reported disabilities in 825 (1.9%) among 43,416 pupils in 103 ordinary schools, to the fieldworker, Mr. Sibghat–ur–Rehman in 1982, who personally verified the cases. These 825 children were interviewed and followed up in 1983–1984, by Ms. Yasmin Fazal, and Mr. Munir Akhtar Qureshi, working under the Socy for Integrated Educ. for Handicapped Children.

MILES M. (1985) Where There Is No Rehab. Plan. A critique of the WHO scheme for Community Based Rehabilitation, with suggestions for future directions. Peshawar: MHC & Palo Alto: Hesperian Foundation. 64 pp. (Reformatted reprint in 1997, 27 pp.)

MILES M. (1985) Problems of definition & categorisation of mental retardation in Pakistan. In: PAKISTAN. DGSE Report on Natl Coord. Conf. (q.v.) 80–85.

MILES M. (1986) Rehabilitation Broadcasts for Rural Areas. Peshawar: MHC & Brussels: Intl League of Societies for Persons with Mental Handicap. 48 pp.
14 scripts of 12 minutes each, on disability topics, which were broadcast in Pushto to Afghanistan and North–West Pakistan.

MILES M. (1986) Misplanning for disabilities in Asia. In: K. Marfo, B. Charles & S. Walker (Ed.s) Childhood Disability in Developing Countries, 101–28. New York: Praeger.

MILES M. (1987) Profound Mental Handicap: the ultimate challenge. Report on Proceedings of an International Conference, Madrid, Nov. 1984. Brussels: Intl League of Societies for Mental Handicap. 84 pp.
Report draws on examples of typical situations in Pakistan.

MILES M. (1987) Handicapped children in Pakistan: targeting information needs. Health Policy & Plng 2: 347–51.

MILES M. (1987) Vocational rehabilitation: realities for the rural Asian disabled person. African Rehab. J. 2 (No. 10) 13–14.
Discusses project to develop low–cost handicraft skills for disabled people to use in cottage industry.
Updated (2001) retitled: Vocational rehabilitation: barefoot realities in North West Pakistan. At:

MILES M. (1988) Special education in Pakistan: development issues. Intl J. Spec. Educ. 3: 39–50.

MILES M. (1989) Information based rehabilitation for Third World disability. Soc. Sci. & Medicine 28 (3) 207–10.

MILES M. (1989) Disability policies in Pakistan: Is anyone winning? Intl J. Spec. Educ. 4: 1–15. (Also in The Pakistan Times, 6 & 13 May 1990, Magazine. Section).
Vicissitudes of disability service policy development during the 1980s.

MILES M. (1989) Rehabilitation development in South West Asia: conflicts and potentials. In: L. Barton (Ed.) Disability & Dependency 110–26. London: Falmer.

MILES M. (1989) Monitoring polio trends from physiotherapy records. Tropical Doctor 19: 3–5.
Sentinel surveillance, using cerebral palsy as a surrogate indicator of attendance at a physical disability clinic in Peshawar.

MILES M. (1990) A resource centre developing information based rehabilitation. In: Thorburn & Marfo (Ed.s) (q.v.) 261–76.

MILES M. (1990) Special education in Pakistan. Intl J. Disab. Development & Educ. 37: 159–68.

MILES M. (1991) Effective use of action oriented studies in Pakistan. Intl J. Rehab. Research 14: 25–35.

MILES M. (1991) Mental Handicap Services: Development Trends in Pakistan. Peshawar: MHC. 69 pp. (incl. 25 pp. appendices). ERIC Ed 342187.
Analysis and discussion of data from 16 leaders in the mental handicap service field, from a mailed questionnaire survey; some comparison with earlier survey results (see MILES & AURET, 1983).

MILES M. (1993) Mental handicap services: practical trends in Pakistan. European J. Spec. Needs Educ. 8: 45–58.

MILES M. (1993) Service development by information, not ideology. In: Finkenfluegel (Ed.) (q.v.) 107–24.

MILES M. (1995) Disability in an Eastern religious context: historical perspectives. Disab. & Socy 10: 49–69.

MILES M. (1996) Pakistan's microcephalic chuas of Shah Daulah: cursed, clamped or cherished? History of Psychiatry 7: 571–89.
Historical study of a shrine at Gujrat in the Punjab, following a visit in 1992. Families used to bring children with microcephaly and leave them at the shrine, where they were cared for, but were also used for begging. The shrine was taken over in 1969 by the Waqf (Auqaf) Dept, GoP, and no longer receives microcephalic children. (See also in historical section, under BEG; EWENS; GRAY; JOHNSTON; LODGE PATCH; MILES.)

MILES M. (1996) Walking delicately around mental handicap, sex education and abuse in Pakistan. Child Abuse Review 5: 263–74.
Reviews literature on child abuse, sex education and child sexual abuse in Pakistan. Describes applications to mentally retarded children.

MILES M. (1996) Community, individual or information development? Dilemmas of concept and culture in South Asian disability planning. Disab. & Socy 11: 485–500.

MILES M. (1997) Disabled learners in South Asia: lessons from the past for educational exporters. Intl J. Disab. Development & Educ. 44: 97–104.

MILES M. (1998) Goitre, cretinism & iodine in South Asia: historical perspectives on a continuing scourge. Medical History 42: 47–67.

MILES M (1998) Development of Community Based Rehabilitation in Pakistan: bringing mental handicap into focus. Intl J. Disab. Development & Educ. 45: 431–48.

MILES M. (2000) Enabling the disability NGOs? Centralisation versus competition in Pakistan and Bangladesh. In: J. Vartola et al. (Ed.s) Development NGOs Facing the 21st Century. Perspectives from South Asia, 149–64. Kathmandu: Inst. Human Development. ISBN 99933–310–0–6
Reflects on the development of non–government organisations, particularly those set up to assist children with mental retardation, in Pakistan and Bangladesh from the 1960s to 1990s. The pattern of development differed in these two large Asian Muslim countries, but each route had some benefits and disadvantages, and neither is clearly superior.

MILES M. (2003) Knowledge and management of disabling conditions in South Asian histories: implications for leprosy futures. Indian J. Leprosy 75 (2) 153–67.
Revised and extended version, titled "Disabling conditions in South Asia: the hidden factors, with implications for leprosy," at:

MILES M. & AURET L. (1983) Mental handicap in Pakistan: development issues. Formative Years, Dec., 12–19.
Report on mailed opinion survey among leaders in the mental handicap field. (See further survey report, MILES, 1991)

MILES M. & FRIZZELL. Y (1990) Handling the cerebral palsied child: multi level skills transfer in Pakistan. Physiotherapy 76: 183–86.

MILES M & HOSSAIN F (1999) Rights and disabilities in educational provision in Pakistan and Bangladesh: roots, rhetoric, reality. In: F. Armstrong & L. Barton (Ed.s) Disability, Human Rights and Education: some comparative perspectives 67–86. Buckingham: Open UP.

MILES M. & MILES C. (1993) Education and disability in cross cultural perspective: Pakistan. In: S. Peters (Ed.) Education and Disability in Cross Cultural Perspective 167–235. New York: Garland.
Detailed overview of educational provisions for disabled children in Pakistan from the 1950s to 1990s, and conflicts arising from the import of strategies based on fundamentally different western concepts. Shows some of the indigenous concepts and resources on which Pakistan could build.

MINTURN, Leigh (1963) The Rajputs of Khalapur, India. II: Child Training. In: B.B. Whiting (Ed.) Six Cultures. Studies in Child Rearing 301–61. New York: Wiley.
Detailed account of rural children and child rearing in the adjoining region, having many points of similarity with rural Pakistan in the 1980s.

MIRZA A. (1987) Child health related practices in Karachi slums. Islamabad: USAID.

MIRZA H. (1985) Report of CBR programme in district Jhelum. Report to UNICEF, Lahore. (Mimeo).

MIRZA, Ilyas (2001) Common mental disorders in urban versus rural Pakistan. Brit. J. Psychiatry 178: 475–76.

MIRZA I. & JENKINS R. (2004) Risk factors, prevalence, and treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders in Pakistan: systematic review. Brit. Med. J. 328: 794–.

MIRZA, Laeeq (1981) Basic challenges involved in work with the handicapped. In: Proceedings of Natl Seminar on Problems of Handicapped Children and their Families, Jan. 1981, Lahore. Lahore: Natl Socy for Mentally Emotionally Handicapped Children.

MIRZA L. (1988) National Institute of Special Education. In: PAKISTAN. DGSE. Spec. Educ. Bulletin, 19–20.

MIRZA, M. Rafiq (1990) Child abuse with special reference to Pakistan. Paper presented at the Eighth Intl Psychiatric Conference, 11–14 Dec. 1990, Islamabad. PPS.

MUBASHAR, Malik H. (1979) Presentation of a proposal for the establishment of a National Pilot Complex (residential) for the handicapped and mentally retarded children. In: PAKISTAN. Min. Hlth & Soc. Welf. Report of Natl Workshop (q.v.) 26–33.

MUBASHAR M.H. (1981) Planning of services for mentally retarded in Pakistan. Rawal Med. J. (April).

MUBBASHAR M.H. (2000) Mental illness in Pakistan. In I. al–Issa (Ed.) Al–Junun (q.v.) 187–203.

MUBBASHAR M.H., MALIK S.J., ZAR J.R. & WIG N.N. (1986) Community–based rural mental health care programme. Report of an experiment in Pakistan. Eastern Mediterranean Region Health Services J. 1: 14–20.

MUBBASHAR M.H. & SYED, Atif R. (Ed.s) Mental Health for All. All for Mental Health. Proceedings of the Eighth International Psychiatric Conference, Dec. 1990, Islamabad, Pakistan, Vol. 1. PPS, Rawalpindi Med. Coll.

MUBBASHAR M.H. & SYED A.R. (Ed.s) Mental Health in Developing Countries. Proceedings of the Eighth International Psychiatric Conference, December 1990, Islamabad, Pakistan, Vol. 2. PPS, Rawalpindi Med. Coll.

MULL, Dorothy S., ANDERSON, Jon W. & MULL, J.D. (1990) Cow dung, rock salt, and medical innovation in the Hindu Kush of Pakistan. Soc. Sci. & Medicine 30: 675–91.
Including study on goitre prevention.

MULL D.S. & MULL J.D. (1988) Health beliefs and practices of 150 mothers in rural North West Frontier Province. Report to USAID, Islamabad.

MULL, J. Dennis, WOOD, Corinne S., GANS, Lydia P. & MULL D.S. (1989) Culture and ‘compliance’ among leprosy patients in Pakistan. Soc. Sci. & Medicine 29: 799–811

MUMFORD D.B., BAVINGTON J. & BHATNAGAR K.S. (1991) The Bradford Somatic Inventory: a multi–ethnic inventory of somatic symptoms reported by anxious and depressed patients in Britain and the Indo–Pakistan subcontinent. Brit. J. Psychiatry 158: 379–86.

MUNAWAR, Mirza (1977) Differences between stay–ins and dropouts of rural primary schools in Pakistan: school factors. Lahore: Inst. Educ. & Research, Punjab Univ. 136 pp. (mimeo).

MURK, Karin (1992) Summary, and Directory of Participants, of the Workshop on Community and Outreach Services for Women and Children with Disabilities. Unpublished. 38 pp. (Aga Khan Univ., Dept Community Health)

MURK K. (1993) Urban areas and CBR: is it realistic? In: Finkenfluegel (Ed.) (q.v.) 99–103.
Discusses CBR efforts in Baldia Town, Karachi.

MUSLIM A.S. (1993) Mental Retardation in Pakistan (Education, Training & Rehabilitation). Revised edition. Karachi: Socy for Children in Need of Spec. Attention. 164 pp.
Reviews 35 years' experience, by father of a Down's syndrome son, founder of Pakistan's first society for children with mental handicap.

NABI, Ijaz (Ed.) (1986) The Quality of Life in Pakistan. Studies in social sector economics 1–19. Lahore: Vanguard. v + 401 pp.

NAJAM, Najma & HASSAN, Rafia (1979) Researches on child development in the University of the Punjab. In: Pervez (Ed.) (q.v.) 52–69.

NAJAM, Najma & SHAHNAZ, Akhter (1990) A comparative study of forced right handers with natural right handers and natural left handers. In: Mubbashar & Syed (Ed.s) Mental Health for All (q.v.) 69–74.
Comparing 20 naturally left handed children forced by family and social pressures to use their right hands, with 40 other right and left handed children, on various measured tasks.

NAQI, Muhammad (1975) Impact of existing services in the field of handicapped. Proceedings of First Conf. (q.v.) 140–45.

NASIR, Surraiya Jabeen (1979) A guide to typical socio–psychological problems of Pakistani school children. Islamabad: NIP.

NASIR S.J. (1989) Researches on guidance & counselling, personality characteristics, behavioural, emotional and educational problems of children in Pakistan. In: Pervez (Ed.) (q.v.) 198–202.

NASIR S.J. & ANSARI Z.A. (1986) Guidance and Counselling Programme in Islamabad Schools. Final report of a five year project 1980–85. Islamabad: NIP. 47 pp.

NASIR–UD–DIN (1995) The development, implementation and evaluation of a parent outreach program for developmentally delayed children in Pakistan. Unpubl. Ed.D. thesis, Univ. Toronto. (145 pp.)
Comparison of achievements with different methods of assistance to parents of twenty children attending a special education centre at Dera Ismail Khan.

NASREEN M. & JOHNSON R. (1982 ?) Mother and Child Health Care Beliefs and Prctices: Aghberg and Piralizai Clusters (Baluchistan). Quetta: UNICEF.

National Education Policy and Implementation Programme. Islamabad: Min. Educ. 1979.
‘Education of the Handicapped’ appears on pp. 28–29.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION (1987) Report of National Workshop on Development & Preparation of Teaching / Learning Material for Mentally Retarded Children, Islamabad, March 4–19 1987. Islamabad: DGSE.

National Policy for the Education and Rehabilitation of the Disabled. (1988 Review). 1988. Islamabad: DGSE. 30 pp.
The published policy of GoP on Spec. Educ. and ancillary services.

National Seminar on Problems of Handicapped Children and their Families. Souvenir (1981) Lahore. 74 pp. (English) + 20 p. (Urdu).

NIAZ, Unaiza (2000) Women's Mental Health. Karachi: PPS. 206 pp.

NIGHAT, Yasmin (1998) Report of follow up study of Portage activities in Pakistan. Paper presented at the Seventh Intl Portage Conference, Hiroshima, 1998.

OGILVIE, Irene (1989) Rehabilitation in Pakistan. Where these is nothing, where do you start? Physiotherapy 75: 354–57.
Describes training of staff for a project to add disability prevention and services to existing rural primary health care activities.

OGILVIE I. (1993) Health education in PHC and CBR programmes: a shared responsibility. In: Finkenfluegel (Ed.) (q.v.) 125–33.
Disab. training for PHC workers in Punjab.

PAKISTAN. Commis. on Natl Educ. (1960) Report. (Karachi).
"Education of Handicapped Children" appears on pp. 251–53.

PAKISTAN. Commis. on Status of Women (1989). Report. Islamabad: GoP.
Frank views on status of women in Pakistan, including girls and family conditions, in 1985. Publication suspended by General Zia ul Haq. Appeared in 1989, under Benazir Bhutto.

PAKISTAN. DGSE (1985) Report on National Coordination Conference on Education of Mentally Handicapped Children, Islamabad, July 1985 80–85. Islamabad: GoP.

PAKISTAN. DGSE (1986) Education of the Disabled (1986 92). Islamabad: GoP.

PAKISTAN. DGSE (1986) Directory of Special Education Programmes in Pakistan. Islamabad: GoP. 48 pp.
Listed under 4 disab. categories, then by Province. Name, address, date of establishment, clientele, services offered.

PAKISTAN. DGSE (1986) Education & Care of Handicapped. Report of the Delegation which visited the U.K., Denmark, FRG, Kuwait and India to Study their Systems for Education and Care of Handicapped. 1986. Islamabad: GoP. 192 pp.
Largely descriptive report of a tour which preceded formulation of the Natl Policy for Educ. & Rehab. of the Disabled.

PAKISTAN. MHSESW. DGSE (1986) Report of the Workshop on Leadership in Special Education, November 1986, Islamabad. Islamabad: GoP. 31 pp.

PAKISTAN. MHSESW. DGSE (1987) Report of the National Workshop on development and preparation of teaching / learning materials for mentally retarded children, March 1987, Islamabad.
Includes a brief consideration (pp. 41–42) of cultural norms affecting child rearing and handicap.

PAKISTAN. MHSESW. DGSE (1987) Teaching Mentally Retarded Children. Report of Training Workshop conducted by Mrs. Judith Coupe, Hyderabad, April 1987. Islamabad: GoP. 21 pp.
Outline of six day course covering British behavioural teaching strategies and curriculum development.

PAKISTAN. MHSESW. DGSE (1988) Special Education Bulletin. Islamabad: GoP.

PAKISTAN. Federal Bureau of Statistics (1986) Survey of Disabled Persons 1984–85. Karachi: GoP. xviii + 165 pp.
Based on 5,638 nationwide sample of households reporting a disabled member. Tabulated by area, nature of disability, gender, reason of disability, treatment received, skill training received, sources of livelihood, labour force participation, unemployment. (See also AFZAL M., 1992; AHMED T., 1995).

PAKISTAN. Min. Educ. (1979) National Education Policy and Implementation Programme. Islamabad: GoP. iv + 114 pp.
Education of disabled people appears on pp. 28–29.

PAKISTAN. Min. Educ., Curriculum Wing (1976) Detailed Curricula for Primary Teaching Certificate (P.T.C.) and Certificate in Teaching (C.T.) Programmes. Islamabad: GoP, Teacher Educ. Sector. v + 78 pp.
New curriculum, giving some emphasis to less didactic method of teaching and to child development, individual differences, and counselling.

PAKISTAN. Min. Educ., Curriculum Wing (1980) Minutes of the meeting of National Committee on Special Education (24–26 March 1980) held at Karachi. 3 pp. Annexure II, Draft Scheme of Studies for Special Education (Classes IXII). Part I: Scheme of studies for deaf children. Part II: Scheme of studies for visually handicapped (blind) children. Part III: Scheme of studies for mentally handicapped. 22 pp.

PAKISTAN. Min. Hlth & Soc. Welf. (1979) Report of the National Workshop on "Welfare and Development of the Handicapped Child," Islamabad, Pakistan, 22–23 Oct. 1979. Islamabad: GoP with UNICEF. ix + 121 pp.
Includes bibliography of 62 newspaper items published in the Intl Year of the Child, mostly concerning disabilities.

PAKISTAN. Min. Hlth & Soc. Welf. (1979) Report of the National Workshop on "Child Legislation," Islamabad, Pakistan, October 1979. Islamabad: GoP with UNICEF. x + 192 pp.

PAKISTAN. MHSESW (1981) Directory of Child Welfare Agencies in Pakistan. Islamabad: GoP.

PAKISTAN. MHSESW (1981) Handbook of Statistics on Disabled Persons in Pakistan. Islamabad: GoP. Unpubl.
Gives district wise guesstimates and population census figures.

PAKISTAN. MHSESW (1981) Proceedings of Natl Workshop on "Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation: Community Based Strategy." Islamabad.

PAKISTAN. MHSESW (1990) Special Education & Social Welfare Division – Performance, 1989. Islamabad: GoP. ii + 54 pp.
Based on 1989, this well–presented report describes the development, achievements and plans of Federal Govt disability services.

PAKISTAN. MHSESW (1992) First Report on the Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Islamabad: GoP.

PAKISTAN. Natl Inst. Spec. Educ. (1991) Pakistan Sign Language, with Regional Differences. Islamabad: NISE (See: ABSA, 1987, 1989; AHMED S.I., 1989; Pakistan Assoc. the Deaf; SULMAN & ZUBERI; ZESHAN, 1996–2000).

PAKISTAN. Natl Inst. Spec. Educ. (1994) Directory, Special Education and Welfare Services for Disabled Persons. Islamabad: GoP.

PAKISTAN. Plng Commis. The First Five Year Plan, 1955–60 (1957). Karachi: GoP.
Govt unable to provide for spec. educ. needs until its basic Educ. programme is better established (p. 587).

PAKISTAN. Plng Commis. (1986) Sixth Five Year Plan 1983–88. Islamabad: GoP.
Plans for spec. educ. on pp. 430–31, 552–54.

PAKISTAN. Plng Commis. (1988) Seventh Five Year Plan 1988–93 & Perspective Plan 1988–2003. Islamabad: GoP.
Includes discussion of educational objectives and caustic view of present achievements (pp. 243–54). Plans for spec. educ. are under ‘Social Welfare’ (299–304).

PAKISTAN. MHSESW. Soc. Welf. & Spec. Educ. Division (1991) Bulletin. Islamabad: GoP. 52 pp. (English) + 12 pp. (Urdu).
Eleven reports on government disability and special education activities (pp. 22–48) plus some general papers.

PAKISTAN. MHSESW. Soc. Welf. & Spec. Educ. Division (1994) National Social Welfare Policy. Islamabad: GoP. vi + 17 pp.
Three paragraphs on disabled people (pp. 8–9).

PAKISTAN. Min. Women Development, Soc. Welf., Spec. Educ. (1999) National Policy for Special Education. Islamabad: GoP.

PAKISTAN. Min. Women Development, Soc. Welf., Spec. Educ. (2003 ?) National Policy for the Disabled. Islamabad: GoP.

Pakistan Assoc. Deaf (PAD) (2002 ?) (Sign Language Booklets). Karachi.
(Four booklets are listed by Sulman & Zuberi, without publication details.)
(See: ABSA, 1987, 1989; AHMED S.I., 1989; PAKISTAN Natl Inst. Spec. Educ., 1991; SULMAN & ZUBERI; ZESHAN, 1996–2000).

The Pakistan Society for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled. Annual Report. Lahore.
Founded in 1957, the PSRD has for many years produced a detailed annual report giving statistics and some analysis and comment on its work, mainly with people having physical disabilities, based in Lahore.

The Pakistan Society for the Welfare of Mentally Retarded Children (c. 1993) Introductory brochure. Lahore. 40 pp.
Founded in 1961. For many years the main activity was the school, Amin Maktab, at Lahore. In the 1990s, activities expanded considerably with a CBR and training programme.

Pakistan Special Education Seminar, 6 7 July 1987, Lucas Inst., Univ. Birmingham. Report. London: Brit. Cncl 11 pp. (mimeo). Coordinating the experiences and reports of special education experts who had done consultancies in Pakistan during recent years.

Pakistan J. Psychology. 1965 – #.

Pakistan J. Psychological Research. 1986 – #. Islamabad: NIP.
Founded in 1986 with Professor Z.A. Ansari as editor.

Pakistan J. Special Education. 1998–#. Univ. Karachi, Dept Spec. Educ.

Pakistani J. Child Mental Health. 1991 – #. Lahore (GPO Box 621).
Founded in 1991 by Professor Khalida Tareen. (See earlier Formative Years. Bulletin of Child Mental Health, above, from same source).

PASHA G.R., IQBAL, Munawar & FAROOQ, Shahzad K. (2001) Facts and factors about the destiny of working and escaped children in Punjab (Pakistan). Pakistan Economic & Social Review 39 (1) 1–24.

PERVEZ, Mohammad (1992) Concrete operational thought as a construct and its relevance to school education in Pakistan. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, NIP, Islamabad.

PERVEZ M. (#) A data base of primary school children of Pakistan: cognitive developmental, educational and social variables. Technical report, NIP, Islamabad.

PERVEZ M. & DURRANI, Naeem (Ed.s) (1989) Cognitive Development in Primary School Children of Pakistan. Islamabad: NIP. 127 pp. ISBN 969–8022–13–9.

PERVEZ, Seema (1984) Personality dynamics of Pakistani Children. Islamabad: NIP. 43 pp.
Children's Apperception Test, local adaptation, with 200 primary school children divided into upper, middle and lower socio economic status.

PERVEZ S. (Ed.) (1989) The Pakistani Child: Educational and Psychological Research. Islamabad: NIP . 207 pp. ISBN 969–8022–14–7.
Report of Natl seminar of 1986. Chapters include summaries of much child research, e.g. on child rearing, child development, with some bibliographical details.

PERVEZ S. (1992) The role of play in the development of pre–school children. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, NIP, Islamabad.

PERVEZ S. & ANIS–UL–HAQUE M. ( ) Developmental tasks for primary school age children. Technical report, NIP, Islamabad.

PETERS, Humphrey S. & REHMAN, Farhat (1989) Community Directed Rehabilitation in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Peshawar: MHC. 48 pp.
English and Urdu report of workshop discussions by local rehab. centres mobilised during a decade of development in North West Frontier.

PFAU, Ruth (1980) Leprosy Control in Pakistan. Karachi: Marie Adelaide Leprosy Centre.

PFAU, Ruth & HAQ, Ghazala (1986) Leprosy in Pakistan. Leprosy Review 57: 355–59.
Brief overview with maps of prevalence and locations of leprosy control centres.

PRENTON, Keith C. (1997) Improving the quality of primary teaching in a developing country: an analytical evaluation of an inservice training programme in Sindh Province, Pakistan. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Hull. 359 pp.

PRICE M. (1983) Report on Speech Therapy in Pakistan for His Excellency Lieutenant Geneneral S.M. Abbasi, Governor of Sind. Unpubl. 6 pp.

Proceedings of First Pakistan Conference of Social Work, Karachi, 1955.

Proceedings of the Educational Conference held at Karachi on the Fourth and Fifth December, 1951 to discuss the six–year National Plan of Educational Development for Pakistan (1956) Karachi: GoP.

Proceedings of the First Conference on the Disabled: "The Handicapped – A Challenge to Action," Karachi, 1975. Karachi: Evaluation & Research Unit, Directorate of Soc. Welf., Govt Sind. x + 191 pp. (Incl. 15 pp. appendices)
Substantial picture of service activities and attitudes towards disabled persons, mainly in Karachi but with some national, participation. (Several of the papers appeared unchanged, in: Pakistan, Min. Hlth & Soc. Welf., 1979, Report of Natl Workshop ... Handicapped Child, q.v.)

PUNJAB. Directorate of Social Welfare, Rawalpindi (1980) Brief regarding the Society for Mentally Handicapped Children, Rawalpindi (Chambelli School). Unpubl. typescript. 4 pp.
Outlines the start of Chambeli School in 1970 under a registered society, and reorganisation in Dec. 1979. (This was Pakistan's third school for mentally handicapped children, following schools in Karachi and Lahore).

PUNJAB. Soc. Welf. Directorate, Plng & Evaluation Unit (n.d.) Disabled in Punjab – A Survey. Lahore.

PUNJAB UNIVERSITY, Dept Soc. Work (1960) Social Welfare Agencies in Lahore. Lahore: Univ. Press.

QAISRANI, Nasim & KHAWAJA, Sarfraz (Ed.s) (1989) Planning of Basic Education in Pakistan. Islamabad: Academy Educnl Plng & Mngmnt, Min. Educ.

QAYYUM, Kausar (1986) Teaching basic concepts to mentally retarded. Unpubl., Univ. Punjab, Lahore.

QUDDUS, Naseem J. (1990) Problems of Education in Pakistan. Karachi: Royal Book Co.
Notes on disabled children (pp. 138–60), curiously based on European ideas from the 1930s to 1970s.

QUDDUS, Syed Abdul (1990) Social Change in Pakistan. Lahore: Progressive Publishers. xv + 359.
Chapters titled "Child Welfare," "Defective," and "Blind," discuss delinquency, begging, feeble–mindedness, handicap, blindness or deafness (pp. 240–93), combining the author's views with those of Western writers up to a century back. Assertions by Goddard in 1914, on the level of mental defect among criminals (p. 267), follow a consideration of "idiots," about whom Quddus believes the issue is raised, "Would it not be better quietly to put them out of their misery?" (p. 266). Some account appears of other, more enlightened, activities with disabled people in Pakistan.

QURESHI A. & THAVER D. (2003) Cross sectional review of children with ADHD presenting to an outpatient psychiatric institute in Pakistan. JPMA 53: 441–43.

QURESHI A.D. (1984) Legislation and rehabilitation information and implementation. In: Information Awareness and Understanding (q.v.) 48–53.

RAFI S., SHAH I.A., RAO M.H. & BILLOO A.G. (1995) Expanded programme of immunization in Karachi. JPMA 45: 34–37.

RAHIMTOOLA R.F. (1971) Malnutrition: physical and mental effects on child. Special emphasis on pre–school child. Pakistan Nursing and Health Review 1: 4–9.

RAHMAN A., MUBBASHAR M., GATER R. & GOLDBERG D. (1998) Randomised trial of impact of school mental health programme in rural Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Lancet 352: 1022–25.

RAHMAN F. (2004) (name transliterated ‘Rahman’ in this publication. See below: REHMAN F (2004))

RASHID, Abdul (1984) Social status of educated blind in Pakistan. Unpubl. thesis. Natl Inst. Pakistan Studies.

RASHID, Farhat (1986) Community–oriented physiotherapy for polio–affected children. In: K. Marfo, S. Walker & B. Charles (Ed.s) Childhood Disability in Developing Countries 129–32. New York: Praeger. Also published in J. Rehab. in Asia 27: 20–22.

RASHID F. (1986) Urdu: Jismani mazooriyan aur asan physiotherapy (Physical disabilities and easy physiotherapy). Peshawar: MHC.

RAUF A (1952) Mental Tests Series. Lahore: Child Guidance Clinic, Central Training Coll.

RAUF A. (1952–55) The Bright and the Backward Vols. I (1952) & II (1955). Lahore.

RAUF A. (1955) Educational backwardness and juvenile delinquency. Punjab Educnl J. 50 (1) 17–23.

RAUF A. (1955) Mental deficiency. Punjab Educnl J. 50 (7) 379–83.

RAUF A. (1955) Dullness and juvenile delinquency. Punjab Educnl J. 50 (8) 467–73.

RAUF A. (1956) The role of neurosis in the aetiology of delinquent behaviour. JPMA 6 (5) 13–18.

RAUF A. (1975) Dynamic Educational Psychology, Third edn Lahore: Ferozsons. 490 pp.(First edn 1958)
Reflects influence of Western developments. Chapters on Child Development (pp. 29 32), Influence of family (131 54), Role of culture (155 74), give an idealised, prescriptive view. Some notes from Rauf's own studies on educational backwardness, delinquency and child guidance (see e.g. RAUF 1952–56)

RAZA, Aamer (1997) Annual Report 1996. Lahore: Pakistan Socy for Welfare of Mentally Retarded Children. 20 pp.

RAZI, Mohammad Shakil (1994) Cause of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in school children in Karachi, Pakistan. Unpubl. doctoral thesis, Univ. Manchester, Faculty of Medicine.

REHMAN, Daodur (1975) Vocational training of the deaf and mute. In: Proceedings of First Conf. (q.v.) 121–25.
Also in: PAKISTAN. Min. Hlth & Soc. Welf. (1979) Report of Natl Workshop... Handicapped Child (q.v.) 59–62.

REHMAN, Farhat (Transl.) (1990) Urdu: Mehroom e samat bachoon aur nojawano kay liye khusoosi taleem. Peshawar: MHC. 104 pp. (Transl. from: Centre for Total Communication, Copenhagen [1987] Education for Deaf Children and Young People. Paris: UNESCO.)
Balanced approach between various schools of thought on education for deaf children.

REHMAN F. (Transl.) (1991) Urdu: Mehrom e basart afrad kay liyea rozmura sargarmiya. Peshawar: MHC. 124 pp. (Transl. from: J.K. HORTON [1986] Community Based Rehabilitation of the Rural Blind. A Training Guide for Field Workers. New York: Helen Keller Intl)

REHMAN F. (1991) A critical review of UNICEF's technical assessment of CBR centres in NWFP. Unpubl. (See SHAHABUDDIN et al., UNICEF, Peshawar)

REHMAN F. (1997) Community based rehabilitation in a purdah observing province of Pakistan. Peshawar: Rehabilitation Centre for the Physically Disabled. 7 pp.

REHMAN F. (1999) Women, secluded culture and community based rehabilitation: an example from Pakistan. Saudi J. Disab. Rehab. 5: 16–19.

REHMAN F. (2004) CBR and Land Mine Survivors' Assistance on Borders. Pakistan Special (Landmine Supplement) Vol. 5 (No. 43) pp. 5–11.
Reports work of Rehabilitation Centre for the Physically Disabled, Peshawar, in community– and centre– based rehabilitation for people in the Pakistan–Afghanistan border region injured by land mines (and similar causes).

REHMATULLAH, Shireen (1980) Children of Rural Sind. Report of study conducted during the International Year of Children 1979. Karachi: Directorate of Soc. Welf., Govt Sind. 59 pp.
Surveyed sample of 4,000 rural households with c. 16,000 children.

Report of the Commission on National Education (1960) GoP.
Chapter 16, Education of Handicapped Children, pp. 251–2.

Report of the seminar "Child Abuse in Pakistan." Peshawar: Pakistan Ped. Assoc. NWFP (Khyber Med. Coll.) & UNICEF.
Frank papers by advocates and pediatricians.

Report on Activities of Amin Maktab. Training and Developmental Resource Centre for Childhood Disabilities (TDRC), Outreach Programme (ORP), Reaching the Unreached Programme (RUP), Jan.Dec. 1996. (1997) Lahore: Pakistan Socy for Welf. of Mentally Retarded Children. 90 pp.
Detailed report on all aspects of the work of one of Pakistan's leading spec. schools & resource centres.

Report on the existing facilities for the Education of the Mentally Retarded in Pakistan (1978). Islamabad. 3 pp. Unpubl.
Unidentified typescript. Responding to minutes of an official government meeting of 10 Jan 1978: a "complete survey of existing facilities" was conducted.

RIAZ, Mah Nazir (1994) Pakistan. In: K. Mazurek & M.A. Winzer (Ed.s) Comparative Studies in Special Education, 143–62. Washington D.C.: Gallaudet UP.

RIZAVI, Sayyid Sajjad (1986) Islamic Philosophy of Education. Lahore: Inst. Islamic Culture.
Early Muslim thinkers on childhood education, pp. 97 108.

ROGHANI, Mehr Taj (1989) Female child in Pakistan – The deprived and neglected. In: Report of the seminar (q.v.) 30–37.

ROSENTHAL F. (1952) Child psychology in Islam. Islamic Culture 26: 1–22.

SAEED K., GATER R., HUSSAIN A. & MUBBASHAR M. (2000) The prevalence, classification and treatment of mental disorders among attenders of native faith healers in rural Pakistan. Socy of Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology 35: 480–85.

SAEED K., WIRZ S., MUBBASHAR M.H., TOMKINS A. & SULLIVAN K. (1999) Detection of disabilities by schoolchildren: a pilot study in rural Pakistan. Tropical Doctor 29: 151–55.

SAEED, Syma (1986) The effectiveness of Token Economy technique as a method of teaching counting and clay modelling to mentally retarded children. Unpubl., Univ. Punjab, Lahore.

SAFDAR, Sarah & SHAH, Zahir (1987) Evaluative report of Community Rehabilitation Development Projects for Handicapped in NWFP (Pakistan) (February 1982 – December 1986) for UNICEF, NWFP. Unpubl. vi + 83 pp.

SAHIBZADA, Naseem R. (1991) A cross–cultural study of child rearing practices and their effect on personality development. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Peshawar. 130 pp.
Compares some child rearing practices of 161 Pakistani and Kenyan mothers.

SAIGH, Philip A. & KHAN, Sheraz (1982) Token reinforcement in a Pakistani classroom. J. Soc. Psychl. 118: 11–16.

SANDGREN, Bjorn & ÅSBERG, Rodney (1976) On Cognition & Social Change. A report from a pilot study regarding the effect of schooling on cognitive growth and attitudes towards social change in Pakistan. Lahore: Inst. Educ. & Research, Univ. Punjab.

SARDAR–UL–MULK, SHAHID M.A. & GRANT I.S. (1974) Endemic goitre in Chitral. JPMA 24: 171–76.

SAXENA R.P. (1987) Some herbal drugs for mental subnormality: a clinical appraisal. Hamdard Medicus XXX (1–2) 211–14. (Hamdard Foundation, Karachi)
Unani treatment. (See ARORA, Ed.)

SERPELL R. & TAREEN K.I. (1988) Assessment criteria for severe intellectual disability in various cultural settings. Intl J. Behavioural Development 1: 117–44.

SHABAB M.H. (1990) Documentation of Educational Research in Pakistan, 1947–1990 (an annotated bibliography). Islamabad: Academy Educnl Plng & Mngmt ISBN 969–444–059–9. iii + 156 pp.
Lists by author, and annotates 443 research papers and reports. Very little on disability, but much useful background of primary education, cognitive concepts, etc. Indexes subjects.

SHAH, Fatima (1974) The social integration of blind women. Proceedings of the 1974 World Congress of the Blind.

SHAH F. (1996, revised edn) Disability, Self Help and Social Change. Karachi: Author. 190 pp.
First published in 1990 by ICIC Foundation. Conditions for disabled Asian people reviewed by a prominent blind Pakistani woman, including her papers on various occasions from 1974–1994.

SHAH F. (1992) The blind woman and her family, and participation in the community (rural). In: D Drieger & S.G. Dueck (Ed.s) Imprinting Our Image: an International Anthology by Women with Disabilities. Gynergy Books.

SHAH, Makhdoom A. (1984) An Assessment of Completed Research on Women and Children in Pakistan 1979. 2 Vols.. Islamabad: UNICEF. 72 & 42 pp.
Detailed analysis of contents and evaluation of utility of research.

SHAH M.H. (1966) The General Principles of Avicenna's Canon of Medicine. Karachi: Naveed Clinic.

SHAH, Mubarik Hussain & PERVEZ, Mohammad (1994) Profile of Pre–school Charsadda Child. Report of a study sponsored by Primary Education Charsadda District Project (Pakistan). iv + 116 pp.
Frank and penetrating study of childhood realities in a rural town of the North West Frontier Province.

SHAH, Nasra M. (Ed.) (1986) Pakistani Women. A socioeconomic & demographic profile. Islamabad: Pakistan Inst. Development Economics; Honolulu: East–West Center. ISBN 0–86638–053–1. 412 pp.
Well–referenced compendium, informative on health and educational background in Pakistan from 1960s to mid–1980s.

SHAHABUDDIN, KHAN A.A., & BEGUM R. (1990) Report of a technical assessment of five community based rehabilitation centres in NWFP (Mingora, Kohat, Karak, D.I. Khan, Nowshera). Unpubl. report to UNICEF, Peshawar. (See also response by REHMAN F.).

SHAHID SAMI & Co. (1981) Pakistan Goitre Control Programme. Karachi. 237 pp.

SHAHZADI, Shagufta (1999) Disability in Pakistan, an historical perspective: the status of disabled women. Intl J. Spec. Educ. 14 (2) 31–35.

SHAMI S.A. (1983) Inbred and non inbred first cousin marriages. JPMA 33: 3–6.

SHAMSHUDIN, Anwar (1994) Deaf culture in Pakistan. In: C.J. Erting et al. (Ed.s) The Deaf Way. Perspectives from the International Conference on Deaf Culture 75–77. Washington D.C.: Gallaudet UP.
Mostly on the poverty, traditional cultural barriers, and privations of deaf children and adults. "Members of the older generation in our country are orthodox in their views and consider deafness a taboo and a curse from heaven." Brief mention of efforts to provide a sign language dictionary.

SHAMSUDDIN M. (1963) History of Development of Health Services in Pakistan. Karachi: Planning Commis.

SHAYER M. (1982) Child development and primary school dropout. Report No. PAK/78/012, Paris, UNESCO.

SHEHAB, Rafi Ullah (1986, 9 Oct.) Treatment of children in Islamic society. The Pakistan Times.

SHEIKH, Muhammad Atif (2004) Country Report (Pakistan). Paper presented at Capacity Building Training / Seminar for People with Disabilities in Asia Pacific Region (CBTS), Kathmandu, Feb. 2004.

SHEIKH M.S. (1990, 6 May) A policy for disabled. The Pakistan Times, Sports & Youth section, p. B.

SHEIKH, Riaz Ahmed (1977) Psychosocial problems: the integration of the deaf children into ordinary schools. In: Proceedings of the international Congress of the Deaf, Tokyo 1975, pp. 612–20. Tokyo: Organizing Committee.

SHEIKH R.A. (1982) Welfare and uplift of the deaf children in Pakistan. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Education of the Deaf, Hamburg, 1980, 236–46. Heidelberg: Julius Groos Verlag.

SHEIKH R.A. (1985) The situation of the under–privileged deaf children in Pakistan and the role of National Institute for the Deaf towards their education and welfare. In: I.G. Taylor (Ed.) The Education of the Deaf. Current Perspectives, 4: 2049–53 London: Croom Helm.

SIDDIQI, Imdad (1975) Problems of speech and rehabilitation of the mentally retarded. In: Proceedings of First Conf. (q.v.) 59–61.

SIND Provincial Co–Ordinating Council for Disabled Persons (1983) (Brochure). Karachi. 32 pp.
Lists officers and organisational members of the council, with short articles about ten of the organisations.

SIND. Soc. Welf. Directorate, Evaluation & Research Unit (1976) Report of the Survey of Non–Institutional Civilian Disabled Persons Conducted in Sind (1974–75). Karachi. 26 pp.

SIRAJ Q.H. & SHAHID M.A. (1982) The syndrome of sporadic goitre and congenital deafness. JPMA 32: 240–48.

SOCIAL WORK DEPT, Univ. Lahore (1986) Evaluation Report of Community Based Rehabilitation Programme in District Jhelum and Lahore Katchi Abadis. Lahore: UNICEF.

SOOPRAMANIEN A., & MOERI J. (1991) Social Implications of Spinal Cord Injury in Peshawar, Pakistan. Geneva: Intl Committee of Red Cross. 10 pp.

SPARROW, John (1981 ?) The living legend of Sister Lemmens. Holland Herald #, 14–23.
On the founder of Dar ul Sukun, Karachi, and her work there since 1969.

SPECIAL EDUCATION & WELFARE DIVISION (1990) Performance 1989. Islamabad: GoP.

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SULMAN N. & ZUBERI, Sadaf (2002) Pakistan Sign Language — a synopsis. Karachi: IUCN Pakistan.
pp. 16–22 give details of studies on sign language in different areas of Pakistan by four organisations (ABSA, NISE, Pakistan Association Deaf, and Sir Syed Deaf Association), and lists their publications of about 14 sign dictionaries and booklets.
(See: ABSA, 1987, 1989; AHMED S.I., 1989; PAKISTAN NISE, 1991; Pakistan Association of the Deaf; ZESHAN, 1996–2000).

SYED, Sajjad Hussain Shah (1992) Poliomyelitis: recent trends of poliomyelitis endemic in Pakistan. Unpubl. MPH diss., New York Med. Coll. 130 pp.

TARAR, Sharmeen & TAREEN, Khalida (1996) An overview of speech disorders in children in the outpatients department of Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Paper presented at the Regional Meeting of World Psychiatric Assoc., March 1996, Lahore.

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TAREEN K.I. (1984) Towards Understanding Mental Handicap and Epilepsy. Lahore: Wajid Ali.

TAREEN K.I. (1991) Child psychiatry comes of age. Pakistani J. Child Mental Health 1: 1–7.

TAREEN K.I., BASHIR, Anjum & NASAR, Tanveer (1984) A study of patterns of psychosocial disorders in children living in katchi abadis. Lahore: Socy for Mentally & Emotionally Handicapped Children. 82 pp.
Two studies, one clinic based, one door to door in slums. Mentions child rearing practices.

TAREEN K.I., MIRZA L., MOBIN N. & QURESHI A.A. (1982) Epidemiological Study of Childhood Disability. Survey/Study in Punjab (Pakistan). Interim Report. Lahore: UNICEF. v + 48 + xvi pp.
Data and analysis on 1,025 children in a household survey in Lahore, discussing frankly the difficulties of such surveys.

TAREEN K.I. & YUSUF A. (1983) Speech problems in children. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of Pakistan Pediatric Assoc., 1983. Unpubl. 10 pp.

TAREEN K.I., KHALID T., MOBIN N. & MIRZA L. (1992) Urdu standardization of WISC-R. A preliminary report. Pakistani J. Child Mental Health 3: 204–209.

TARIQ, Pervaiz Naeem (1989) Researches on the social development of the child in Pakistan. In: S. Pervez (Ed.) (q.v.) 171 6. Islamabad: NIP.

THOMSON G. (1998) Provision for Children with Special Educational Needs in Pakistan. An Overview. Unpubl. report to the U.K. Govt, Dept for Intl Development.

THORBURN M. & MARFO K. (Ed.s) Practical Approaches to Childhood Disability in Developing Countries: Insights from Experience and Research. St. John's, Canada: Project Seredec, Memorial Univ. Newfoundland.

TYABJI, M.H.B. (1975) Education of the blind. In: Proceedings of First Conf. (q.v.) 15–18.

UNICEF (1985) Disability in Asia. Pakistan. One in Ten 4: 2,3,4

UNICEF (1989) Report of the Seminar "Child Abuse in Pakistan," Sept. 19, 1989, Peshawar. Peshawar.

UNICEF (1992) Situation Analysis of Children & Women in Pakistan. Islamabad. vii + 165 pp.

UNICEF (1993) Situation Analysis of Children & Women in NWFP. UNICEF & GoP. 65 pp.

UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI (1988) Programme of Studies for Advanced Diploma / Masters Degree in Special Education. Karachi.: Dept Educ., Univ. Karachi. 30 pp.
Detailed syllabus for one–year diploma, two–year M.A. degree, with reading lists (almost entirely European and American works).

WAHID F. (1963) Experiment in integration by a blind teacher. In: Grant (Ed.) (q.v.) 71–73.
Blind teacher's report on initiating a Resource Class for several blind children in an ordinary school.

WALTER, Younis & AFTAB, Rehmat (Ed.s) (1994) Special Voice. Karachi: Rahat Gar & Bait–ul–Tabassum. (34 pp. English, 9 pp. Urdu).
Short papers, policy statements, reports of activities, address lists of other centres, concerned with mental and physical disabilities and community–based rehab. (care of 250 Catholic Colony–1, Karachi)

WEINER, Myron & NOMAN, Omar (1995) The Child and the State in India and Pakistan: child labour and education in comparative perspective. Karachi: Oxford Univ. Press. xxi + 272 pp.

WERNER, David (1989) Disabled Village Children. Palo Alto: Hesperian Foundation. 654 pp. (Urdu version [12 booklets] has been produced by DGSE, Islamabad; also Nirali Kitaben, Lahore.)

WEST PAKISTAN DGSW (1968) A Decade of Social Welfare. Lahore.

WEST PAKISTAN DGSW (1968) Facts and Figures about Social Welfare in West Pakistan. Lahore: Istiqlal Press.

WEST PAKISTAN DGSW [1968] Directory of Voluntary Social Welfare Agencies and Community Development Projects in West Pakistan. Lahore: West Pakistan Govt Press.

WYATT, H. Vivian (1996) Unnecessary injections and poliomyelitis in Pakistan. Tropical Doctor 26: 179–80.

WYATT H.V. (1998) Poliomyelitis in India – past, present & future. Indian J. Pediatics 65, Supplement, S1 – S98.
Comprehensive overview, and bibliography of materials from 1867 to 1997 including some on Pakistan.

WYATT H.V. & REHMAN F. (1995) Residual paralysis from poliomyelitis in Pakistan. The role of injections. Pakistan Ped. J. 19: 95–99.

YAQOOB, Mohammad (1996) Early Child Health in Lahore, Pakistan. Psychomotor development. Influence of inbreeding and social class on birth defects, severe mental retardation, anthropometric measures, and mortality. Ph.D. thesis, Uppsala Univ. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. 71 pp.
See two following journal items.

YAQOOB M., BASHIR A., TAREEN K., GUSTAVSON K.H., NAZIR R., JALIL F., von DÖBELN U., & FERNGREN H. (1995) Severe mental retardation in 2 to 24–month–old children in Lahore, Pakistan: a prospective cohort study. Acta Paediatrica 84: 267–72.
Detailed comparative study of incidence, aetiology and progress of 16 young children with severe mental retardation among 1303 children from different socio–economic groups.

YAQOOB M., FERNGREN H., JALIL F., NAZIR R., & KARLBERG J. (1993) Early child health in Lahore, Pakistan: XII. Milestones. Acta Paediatrica. Supplement 82 Supplement. 390: 151–57.
Part of an entire journal supplement communicating detailed studies on early child health in Lahore.

YAQUB, Arif (1991) To provide technical training to deaf people and to develop awareness among planners and experts regarding their employment. Partnership Between Deaf People and Professionals. Proceedings of a Conf., August 1991, Rabat, Malta 71–75.
Valletta: Min. Soc. Policy, Malta.

YAZDANI, Ayza (1994) Socialization practices of parents of mentally handicapped children. Unpubl. M.Phil. thesis, NIP, Islamabad.

YAZDANI, Salima (1963) Methodology on the teaching of blind children. In: Grant (Ed.) (q.v.) 39–#.

YOSHIDA M.W., SONODA T. & ZEMKE R. (2003) Validation of Urdu Interaction with Disabled Persons scale. Intl J. Rehab. Research, 26: 229–233.
The IDP Scale was used in Urdu Transl. with 591 non–disabled Pakistani people, to test its validity for assessing attitudes and level of discomfort felt toward disabled people in Pakistan.

YUSUF, Aisha (1991) A cross cultural study of stuttering in boys aged 10–14 years. Pakistani J. Child Mental Health 1: 19–28.

ZAFAR, Fareeha (1991) Finding Our Way. Readings on women in Pakistan. Lahore: ASR Publications. xxi + 335.
Portrays some of the daily life and struggle of women.

ZAIDI, S. Akbar (1988) The Political Economy of Health Care in Pakistan. Lahore: Vanguard.
Public service provision (health, welfare, education) is dominated by needs of a small elite, while unavailable or inappropriate to needs of the masses (pp. 123–33).

ZAIDI, Shabih H. (1989) How safe is the noise exposure? JPMA 39: 60–61.
Editorial contribution by an ENT specialist, warning of many dangers of excessive noise in Pakistan's urban environment, linked with the following listed item, measuring noise in Karachi.

ZAIDI S.H. (1989) Noise levels and the sources of noise pollution in Karachi. JPMA 39: 62–65.

ZAIDI, Shabih H., JAFARY, Maqbool H., NIAZ–ANWR, Unaiza & JAWAID Shaukat Ali (Ed.s) (1995) Medical Ethics in the Contemporary Era. Karachi: Royal Book Co. ISBN 969–8219–04–8. xvi + 289 pp.
Some experienced Pakistani physicians and surgeons discuss modern issues of medical ethics, in an Islamic context. Relevance to disability issues occurs e.g. in issues of embryos, deformity and abortion, pp. 45–46 (M.B. Azami); 113–114, 241–43, 246–48 (S.H. Zaidi). The possibility is contemplated, with much doubt, of aborting a foetus with abnormality because of anticipated maternal trauma on bearing an impaired baby, or of family distress in raising such a child.

ZAIDI, S.M. Hafeez (1975) Psychological research on social change. In: Frontiers of Psychological Research in Pakistan 43–59. Karachi: Psychology Dept, Karachi Univ. Publishing.

ZAMAN S., JALIL F., & KARLBERG J. (1993) Early child health in Lahore, Pakistan: IV. Child care practices. Acta Paediatrica. Supplement. 82 Supplement 390: 39–46.

ZESHAN, Ulrike (1996) Aspects of Pakistani sign language. Sign Language Studies 92: 253–96.
Reports and analyzes video–taped spontaneous signed conversations collected during fieldwork in 1994.
(See: ABSA, 1987, 1989; AHMED S.I., 1989; PAKISTAN NISE, 1991; Pakistan Assoc. of the Deaf; SULMAN & ZUBERI).

ZESHAN U. (1997) "Sprache der Hande?" – Nichtmanuelle Phänomene und Nutzung des Raums in der Pakistanischen Gebärdensprache. Das Zeichen 39: 90–105.

ZESHAN U. (2000) Gebärdensprachen des indischen Subkontinents. (Ph.D. diss.). Munich: LINCOM Europa.

ZESHAN U. (2000) Sign language in Indo–Pakistan. A description of a signed language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. xii + 178 pp.
Structural and grammatical analysis of many hours of video recordings in field work at Karachi from 1994 onward and more recently in Delhi. Demonstrates that sign language varieties in both cities in fact "constitute the same language and have identical grammars" (p. 1). The signs, morphology and syntax of this single Indo–Pak Sign Language (IPSL) are described and explained in an accessible way.

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