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Home > Bibliography > North East Africa > Disability & Deafness in North East Africa: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia (post 1955)

Disability & Deafness in North East Africa

Egypt, Sudan, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia

Introduction and Bibliography, mainly non–medical, with historical material and some annotation

Compiled, introduced and annotated by M. Miles
West Midlands, UK

For a list of abbreviations used in this document, consult the glossary.

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia (post 1955)

ABEBA, Hagos (1996) Academic barriers to the hearing impaired students. Unpubl. M.A. thesis, Univ. Joensuu.
Based in Ethiopia

ABERA, Motbainor & LEMA, Girma (2003) The role of support groups in raising the self–concept of people affected by leprosy: an evaluation study. Asia Pacific Disability Rehab. J. 14: 55–62.

ADMASU A. & DERSO T. (1991) Deaf people communicating with professionals. In: Partnership between Deaf People and Professionals. Proceedings of a Conference, Rabat, Malta. Valletta: Min. Social Policy.
Views from officers of the National Assoc. of the Deaf, Ethiopia.

AGA A. (2001) Avoidable visual impairment among elderly people in a slum of Addis Ababa. Ethiopian J. Health Development 15 (2) 139–44.

AGEGNEHU E. (2000) Inclusion of Children With Disabilities (CWD): Situational Analysis of Ethiopia. In: Including the Excluded. Proceedings of the Fifth International Special Education Congress, University of Manchester.

AHMED, Abdullahi M. (1988) Somali traditional healers: role and status. In: Annarita Puglielli (Ed.) Proceedings of the Third International Conference of Somali Studies, 240–247. Rome: Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore.

AHMED, Zein Z. (1986) The epidemiology of onchocerciasis in northwestern Ethiopia. Tropical & Geographical Medicine 38: 33–39.

ALEMAYEHU W., TEKLE–HAIMANOT R., FORSGREN L., EKSTEDT J. (1995) Causes of visual impairment in Central Ethiopia. Ethiopian MJ 33: 163–74. (See also erratum in Ethiopian MJ 33: 273.)

ANDRE J., SERIÉ C., BARRY (I.S.) (1964) Poliomyelitis in Addis Ababa: serological and viral studies. Ethiopian MJ 3: 13–18.

ATNAFSEGED K. (1992) Le service de "Gharry" dans les villes Ethiopienes de petite et moyenne importance. (Presented at the Sixth International Conference on Mobility and Transport for Elderly and Disabled Persons, May 1992, Lyons). ACTES–INRETS 3 (No. 30) pp. 63–66. (Institut national de recherche sur les transports et leur securité).

AYNALEM G. (1988) A case of conjoined twins, with a brief historical review. Ethiopian MJ 26: 41–44.

BAASHER T. (1965) Treatment and prevention of psychosomatic disorders: psychosomatic diseases in East Africa. American J. Psychiatry 121: 1095–1102.

BARRY, B. Oscar (1961) Orthopaedic surgery in Addis Ababa University. Coll. Rev. 1: 47–56.

BARRY B.O. (1963) Problems of rehabilitation in Ethiopia. In: Disability Prevention – Rehabilitation. Proceedings of the Ninth World Congress of the International Society for Rehabilitation of the Disabled, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 23–29, 1963, 395–97.

BARRY B.O. (1964) Treatment and rehabilitation of orthopaedically handicapped. Ethiopia Observer 9: 262–64.

BARRY B.O. (1964) Review of infantile paralysis in Addis Ababa 1960/1963. Ethiopian MJ 3: 3–12.

BARRY B.O. & QUANNA P. (1962) Lower limb contractures in Addis Ababa. Ethiopian MJ 1: 100–108.

BECX–BLEUMINK M. (1984) New developments in ALERT leprosy control programme and the issue of integration. Ethiopian J. Health Development 1 (2) 49–55.

BEKRI W., GEBRE S., MENGISTE A., SAUNDERSON P.R. & ZEWGE S. (1998) Delay in presentation and start of treatment in leprosy patients: a case–control study of disabled and non–disabled patients in three different settings in Ethiopia. Intl J. Leprosy 66: 1–9.

BENBOW C. & TAMIRU T. (2001) The experience of self–care groups with people affected by leprosy: ALERT, Ethiopia. Leprosy Review 72: 311–21.

BERHANU, Shibru & PREVETT, Martin (2004) Treatment of epilepsy in rural Ethiopia: 2 year follow–up. Ethiopian J. Health Development 18 (1) 31–34.

BOWER H. (2000) Arming the population against polio in Somalia. Lancet July 15, 356 (9225): 229.

BRAND P.W. (1986) The beginning of ALERT (All Africa Leprosy and Rehabilitation Training Centre). Leprosy Review 57 Supplement 1: 1–8.

BROWNE S.G. (1974) Leprosy and the community. Leprosy control in Ethiopia. Leprosy Review 45: 78–82.

BUTLER, Ann, TESFAY, Zelealem, D'ANDREA, A. Catherine, & LYONS, Diana (1999) The ethnobotany of Lathyrus sativus in the Highlands of Ethiopia. In: M van der Veen (Ed.) The Exploitation of Plant Resources in Ancient Africa, 123–36. New York: Kluwer / Plenum.
Reviews archaeological knowledge on Lathyrus sativus in the Middle East, and the grass pea's place in Ethiopian agriculture. Records observation in 1996 of small–scale production and processing of Lathyrus Sativus in the Tigrai highlands, and of interviews in 50 households, disclosing local knowledge of the grass pea, its toxicity, and lathyrism.

CDC (2002) Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication — Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan, January 2001 — October 2002. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Nov. 29; 51 (47) 1070–72.

COLLINET P., STIEN L., VINATIER D. & LEROY J.L. (2002) Management of female genital mutilation in Djibouti: the Peltier General Hospital experience. Acta Obstericia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 81: 1074–1077.

COURTRIGHT P., KLUNGSOYR P., LEWALLEN S. et al. (1993) The epidemiology of blindness and visual loss in Hamar tribesmen of Ethiopia. The role of gender. Tropical Geography & Medicine 45: 168–70.

DEKKER P.A. (1973) Rehabilitation of children suffering from post–poliomyelitis paralysis in Ethiopia. Ethiopian MJ 11: 47–56.

DEKKER P.A. & GREEN–ABATE C. (1988) Prevalence of residual paralysis due to poliomyelitis in school children in Addis Ababa. Ethiopian MJ 26: 133–38.

DEEPAK S. & SHARMA M. (2001) Volunteers and Community Based Rehabilitation. Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation J. 12: 141–148.
Project managers in Egypt, Eritrea, and six other countries responded to a mailed questionnaire on aspects of volunteer participation in CBR.

DE SINCAY B. (1975) Attitudes envers la lèpre et son traitement dans une communauté éthiopienne. (Attitudes towards leprosy and its treatment in an Ethiopian community.) Annales de la Société belge de Médecine tropicale 55: 313–20.

DE SOLE G. & WALTON J.C. (1976) Onchocerciasis in Gemu Gofa: an anthropological and ecological survey. Ethiopian MJ 14: 37–48.

DHOUD OMAR (2001) Survey of Hargeisa Households to Estimate Disability. Hargeisa, Somalia: Africa Educational Trust.

DOBROVIC D. & SCHALLER K.F. (1963) Eye changes and sight defects in leprosy patients. Ethiopian MJ 1: 147–155.

EDITORIAL (1963) Fund for the disabled. Ethiopian MJ 1: 223–224.

EDITORIAL (1964) Poliomyelitis in Ethiopia. Ethiopian MJ 3: 39–40.

EFRAH E. (1982) Psychiatrie in Somalia. Psychiatrie, Neurologie und Medizinische Psychologie 34: 321–29.

ENDALE, Yonas (1996) Ethiopia's mental health trampled by armed conflicts. In: T. Allen (Ed.) In Search of Cool ground. War, flight and homecoming in Northeast Africa, pp. 274–277. London: James Curry.

ERFO D. (1986) Prevalence of trachoma among children attending Kechene Debre Selam Elementary School in Addis Ababa, and a case control study of risk factors in their home environment. MPH thesis, Dept Community Health, Univ. Addis Ababa.

ERITREA. (2004) Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Asmara. 75 pp.
Amidst detail of the weakened state of the post–war national economy, and the straitened circumstances in which much of the population lives, paragraph 4.50 on "Disabled." (p. 45), outlines some services for "vulnerable and disadvantaged persons, including disabled war veterans, and the very poor." Special education is being provided for some deaf or blind people, and "skill–training facilities for all disabled aimed at job creation."

ETHIOPIA. Min. Health (1957) Report of the First National Leprosy Conference of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa. 80 pp.

ETHIOPIA. Country Paper, for UN expert group meeting on disability–sensitive policy and programme monitoring and evaluation UN headquarters, New York, 3–5 December 2001.
At: (viewed 27 January 2004).
Includes detailed tabulation, by region and type of disability, of 991,916 disabled persons reported in the National Census 1994.

ETHIOPIA. National Children's Commission (1981) The Situation of Disabled Children in Ethiopia. Country paper, for the Eastern & Southern African Regional Seminar, Addis Ababa.

ETHIOPIA. National Children's Commission (1983) Report on the Survey of Disabled Children in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa. 74 pp.

ETHIOPIA. National Children's Commission (1984) Proceedings of the Workshop on the Needs and Problems of Disabled Children in Ethiopia, March 16–17, 1984. Addis Ababa. 90 pp.

ETHIOPIA. Rehabilitation Agency and Central Statistical Authority (1996) Report on Socio–Economic Survey of Disabled Population. Addis Ababa.

ETHIOPIA's First National Seminar on Social Welfare. Ethiopia Observer 9 (4) 245–271.

FRASER N.D. (1962) A review of leprosy work in Ethiopia, Uganda, N. Rhodesia and Tanganyika. Leprosy Review 33: 141–53.

GEBRE–AB T., WOLDE–GABRIEL Z., MAFFI M., AHMED ZEIN Z., AYELE T. & FANTA H. (1978) Neurolathyrism: a review and a report of an epidemic. Ethiopian MJ 16: 1–11.

GEBRE MARIAM A. (1983) Acute hemiplegia of infancy and childhood in Addis Ababa: report on 50 followed up cases. Annals of Trop. Medcn. Ped. 3: 31–33.

GEBRE–MARIAM A. (1986) Infantile autism following hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy in an Ethiopian child. Ethiopian MJ 24: 179–82.

GEBRE MARIAM S. (1973) A survey of socio–economic problems of leprosy patients in a spontaneous leprosy settlement in Ethiopia and the problems of rehabilitation. Doctoral thesis, Univ. Swansea.

GEBREMEDHIN, Tigabu (1997) Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities. CBR: Challenging Beliefs and Resources (An assessment of caregivers of persons with disabilities, individuals with disabilities, neighbours of persons with disabilities, living in Weredas 8 and 25 of Addis Ababa, individuals who are involved in disability issues). Addis Ababa. (Sponsored by Radda Barnen). (c. 70 pp.)

GEBREMESKEL, Fessaha (1998) Evaluation of CBR programme in Debub Region: tasting the fruits of the CBR programme. Asmara: Min. Labour and Human Welfare, Eritrea. 85 pp.

GEBRE–MICHAEL H. (1983) A study of adult men and women with impaired hearing and their mutual aid society in Addis Ababa. Senior essay, Dept Sociology, Addis Ababa Univ.

GEBRE MICHAEL W.G. (1987) Scope, purpose and organization of rehabilitation services for disabled persons in Ethiopia: the case of Rehabilitation Agency for the Disabled (RAD). Senior paper, Dept Applied Sociology, Univ. Addis Ababa.

GESSESE K. (1970) A study of the history of deaf schools in Addis Ababa. Haile Sellassie I Univ.

GETAHUN H., LAMBEIN F., & VANHOORNE M. (2002) Neurolathyrism in Ethiopia: assessment and comparison of knowledge and attitudes of health workers and rural inhabitants. Soc. Sci. Med. 54: 1513–24.

GETANEH, Abebe (1996) Is there a need to improve the functional Amharic Braille system? Unpubl. M.A. thesis, Univ. Joensuu.

GIEL R. (1968) The epileptic outcast. EAMJ 45 (1) 27–31.

GIEL R. (1968) Faith–healing and spirit possession in Ghion, Ethiopia. Soc. Sci. Med. 2: 63–79.

GIEL R. (1970) The problem of epilepsy in Ethiopia. Trop. Geographical Medcn. 22: 439–43.

GIEL R., BISHAW M., & VAN LUIJK J.N. (1969) Behaviour disorders in Ethiopian children. Psychiatria, Neurologia, Neurochirurgia 72: 395–400.

GIEL R. & VAN LUIJK J.N. (1970) Leprosy in Ethiopian society. Intl J. Leprosy 38: 187–98.

GIEL R. & WORKNEH F. (1977) Mental illness and its management in Ethiopia. Ethiopian MJ 15: 83–89.

GIRMAI, Ananas (1999) "Mothers or carers?" The experience of refugee Ethiopian and Eritrean mothers who care for disabled children. Thesis, Dept Sociology, Univ. Manchester.

GRASSIVARO GALLO, Pia (1984) The relationship between mental and physical variables in Somali children. In: T. Labahn (Ed.) Proceedings of the Second International Conference of Somali Studies, University of Hamburg, 1983, pp. 223–30. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.
Three further papers on similar topics by Grassivaro Gallo et al. are cited, two being in Italian.

GRASSIVARO GALLO, P. (1988) Female circumcision in Somalia (overall review). In: Annarita Puglielli (Ed.) Proceedings of the Third International Conference of Somali Studies, 443–448. Rome: Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore.
Summaries of the main results of field investigations conducted from 1981 and published from 1985 onward, by Grassivaro Gallo and colleagues.

GRECO R. & ANTONIOTTO A. (1988) Medical and anthropological observations on traditional therapy of hydrocephalus in Somalia. In: Annarita Puglielli (Ed.) Proceedings of the Third International Conference of Somali Studies, 231–235. Rome: Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore.
Eleven cases of hydrocephalus in young children were treated in hospital at Mogadishu by modern medical methods. Interviews were conducted with relatives, and also some traditional doctors. It was learnt that children showing signs of hydrocephalus (madaxwein = big head) were first taken to a religious practitioner for traditional therapy using Qur'anic verses worn as amulets, or where the ink has been dissolved in water; secondly, a traditional Somali doctor used red–hot wooden sticks to produce small burns on the scalp. The aim of both procedures was to drive away the evil spirit believed to be causing the head swelling. (For the modern medical approach, these cauterisations, with some subsequent local infections or complications, presented a serious hazard).

GREEN–ABATE C., DEKKER P.A., WAPENAAR A., & BEKELE G.M. (1989) Paralytic poliomyelitis in Addis Ababa: follow–up survey of registered children. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 9: 103–106.

GREESON C.J., VEACH P.M., & LEROY B.S. (2001) A qualitative investigation of Somali immigrant perceptions of disability: implications for genetic counselling. J. Genetic Counselling 10 (5) 359–78.

HALL G. (1975) Treatment for polio contractures in Ethiopia. Physiotherapy 61: 372–76.

HALL, Peter (1961) Neurologic studies in Ethiopia. World Neurology 2 (8) 731–39.
Hall made two visits to Ethiopia, from Dec. 1958 to April 1959, and also briefly in 1960, having arranged beforehand to travel around hospitals in Addis Ababa and the provinces, "to examine neurologic patients — in particular, those with all types of paralysis." While examining more than 300 patients, Hall and a Swiss colleague identified (with some caution) a large number of neurological conditions, discussed them with Ethiopian and European physicians treating the patients, and named them in this paper.

HARUN, Elias Mohammed (2006) (Transl. by E. Habtetsion) Making them productive part of the society.
The People's Front for Democracy and Justice:
Gives some disability data, policy and implementation from the Govt Eritrea, Dept Social Welfare, Min. Labour and Human Welfare. National census in 2004 identified 150,000 persons with disability. Community Based Rehabilitation programs were active in half the country, reportedly providing local skills training for many disabled people. Some war disabled veterans were receiving a monthly benefit and free medical services.

HATEM M.M. (2000) La santé pour tous en République de Djibouti. Eastern Mediterranean Health J. 6: 813–815.

HELANDER, Bernhard (1990) Mercy or rehabilitation? Culture and the prospects for disabled in Southern Somalia. In: F.J. Bruun & B. Ingstad (Ed.s) Disability in a Cross–Cultural Perspective. Dept Social Anthropology, Univ. Oslo.

HELANDER B. (1995) Disability as incurable illness: health, process, and personhood in Southern Somalia. In: B. Ingstad & SR Whyte (Ed.s) Disability and Culture, pp. 73–93. Berkeley: Univ. California Press.

HOEJER B. & NORDBERG E. (1973) Health survey of a rural elementary school in Ethiopia. Ethiopian MJ 11: 75–92.

HOFVANDER Y. (1970) Endemic goitre among children in the Ethiopian Highlands. Ethiopian MJ 8: 179–84.

HYLANDER F.B. (1962) Role of basic public services in leprosy control. Ethiopian MJ 1: 117–19.

ILO (1967) Report to the government of the Republic of Somalia on vocational rehabilitation and employment of the disabled. IO/OTA/Somalia/R.4 Geneva: ILO. 39 pp.

ILO (1967) Report to the government of Ethiopia on the vocational rehabilitation of the disabled. ILO/OTA/Ethiopia/R.7. Geneva: ILO. 43 pp.

ILO (1979) Organisation of a Production Workshop for the Disabled: the United Abilities Company, Ethiopia. Geneva: ILO. 25 pp.

ILO (2003) Developing entrepreneurship among women with disabilities in Ethiopia. Exploratory surveys in Addis Ababa and Tigray Region.

JACOBSSON L. (1985) Mental disorders in patients admitted to a general hospital in western Ethiopia 1960–1970. Acta Psychiatica Scandinavica 71: 410–16.

Japan International Cooperation Agency, Planning and Evaluation Dept (JICA) (2002) "Country Profile on Disability. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa.
Based on a local consultancy report, the document covers basic indicators on Ethiopia, some disability data, official policies, laws and regulations, available medical, educational and welfare services, activities of disability–related organisations, and bilateral aid projects.

KAHANA, Yael (1985) The Zar spirits: a category of magic in the system of mental health care in Ethiopia. Intl J. Soc. Psychiatry 31: 125–43.

KELBESSA, Tadesse (with ALERT/AHRI) (1984) Bibliography on leprosy in Ethiopia: preliminary compilation. Ethiopian J. Health Development 1 (2) 75–87.
List c. 170 items. Also available on web.

KELLO A.B. & GILBERT C. (2003) Causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in schools for the blind in Ethiopia. British J. Ophthalmology 87 (5) 526–30.

KELLY F.C. & SNEDDON W.W. (1960) Prevalence and geographical distribution of endemic goitre. Endemic Goitre, pp. 27–233. Geneva, World Health Organisation.
In this global study, pp. 131–37 cover goitre reported in Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, French and British Somaliland, with references from 1905 to 1958 (p. 224). Dr. Mérab (q.v.) described an indigenous treatment in which a live porcupine was attached to a large goitre, drawing off much blood and colloid fluid. Some doubt was cast on the suggestion of goitre in British Somaliland.

KENNEDY J.G. (1967) Nubian Zar ceremonies as psychotherapy. Human Organization 26: 185–94. (Also chapter of same title, In: D. Landy [Ed.] [1977] Culture, Disease and Healing, 375–387. New York: MacMillan.)

KLOOS, Helmut & ZEIN, Zein Ahmed (compilers) (1991) Health, Disease, Medicine, and Famine in Ethiopia. A bibliography. New York: Greenwood. xvi + 404 pp.

KOKKALA, Heikki (Ed.) Providing Special Education For Those Who Need It In Developing Countries. Helsinki: Min. Foreign Affairs.
Includes material on Ethiopia and Eritrea.

LEONHARDT, Annette (2001) Die Alpha School for the Deaf in Addis Abeba. Hörgeschädigtenpädagogik 55 (3) 141–148.

LESTER F.T. (1979) Neurological diseases in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. African J. Med. Sci. 8: 7–11.

LEWIS I.M. (1966) Spirit possession and deprivation cults. Man 1: 307–329.
An interpretation of the Zar cult in Somalia.

MARIAM, Zerihun Haile (1992) Country report. In: East African Sign Language Seminar, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, August 1990, 56–57. Helsinki: FAD.

MARKKU, Sassi (1997) Special Teacher Diploma Course for the Teachers of the Deaf in Ethiopia and Eritrea. In: H. Kokkala (Ed.) Providing Special Education For Those Who Need It In Developing Countries, 140–47. Helsinki: Min. Foreign Affairs.

MARU A.A. & COOK M.J. (1990) Education of blind persons in Ethiopia. J. Visual Impairment & Blindness 84 (6) 265–67.

MARU M., GETAHUN A. & HOSHNA S. (1988) Prevalence of paralytic poliomyelitis in rural and urban populations in Ethiopia. American J. Trop. Med. Hygiene 38: 633–35.

MBOYO, Antony (2006) Puppets for the Blind in Eritrea.

McDOUGALL A.C. (1975) Leprosy in the Sudan. Leprosy Rev. 46: [226]

McGHEE, Glen D. (1987) CBR Sudan, and Teaching Programme, Sudan. Unpubl. CBR Action Plan, CICH, Inst. Child Health, London. 100 pp.

MEIMA A., SAUNDERSON P.R., GEBRE S., DESTA K., VAN OOTMARSEEN G.J. & HABBEMA J.D. (1999) Factors associated with impairments in new leprosy patients: the AMFES cohort. Leprosy Rev. 70 (2) 189–203.

MELESE M., ALEMAYEHU W., FRIEDLANDER E. & COURTRIGHT P. (2004) Indirect costs associated with accessing eye care services as a barrier to service use in Ethiopia. Trop. Med. Intl Health 9 (3) 426–31.

MENARD G., DOROL J. & MAILLET J.M. (1994) [Vascular wound by traditional therapeutic burn in Republic of Djibouti.] Médecine et Armées 22 (2/3) 111.

MENGESHA, Mamo (2000) Special needs education: emerging in Ethiopia. In: H. Savolainen et al. (Ed.s) Meeting Special and Diverse Educational Needs, 84–94. Helsinki: Min. Foreign Affairs of Finland, Dept International Development Cooperation; and Jyväskylä: Niilo Mäki Institute.

MESSING, Simon D. (1958) Group therapy and social status in the Zar cult of Ethiopia. American Anthropologist 60 (6) 1120–1126.

MJAUGEDAL, Gisle (2002) Review of Community Based Rehabilitation Programme in Eritrea. Oslo: National Assoc. Disabled. 24 pp.

MOLINEAUX L. & AYELE T. (1963) An endemic goitre survey in Armatschio Woreda, Begemder Province. Ethiopian MJ 1: 239–45.

MYRIAM, Sheekh Cali (1984) Somali Literature on Zar. Somali National Univ.

NEGASH G. (1972) The understanding (knowledge) of parents about the causes of poliomyelitis in children in the Cheshire Home. Unpubl. B.A. senior essay, Dept Social Work, Univ. Addis Ababa.

NEGASSI N. (1982) Medhane Alem Rehabilitation Centre for the physically handicapped disabled workers. Univ. Addis Ababa.

NEGUSSE W (1973) School health service in Ethiopia. Ethiopian MJ 113–20.

NICHOLAS, F. & GIEL R. (1971) A spontaneous leprosy settlement in Ethiopia. Trop. Geography & Medicine 23: 289–93.

ODHIAMBO, Phylmon (2006) The use of puppetry in awareness raising about visual disabilities: a recent case study from Eritrea. Teaching session in Enablement disability and rehabilitation management course, February 2006, Soesterberg, Netherlands.

OOMEN A.P. (1969) Studies on Onchocerciasis and Elephantiasis in Ethiopia. Haarlem: Bohn.

PANKHURST, Sylvia (1960) The Social Service Society. Ethiopia Observer 4 (2) 51–58.

PARKER, Melissa (1996) Social devastation and mental health in Northeast Africa. Some reflections on an absent literature. In: T. Allen (Ed.) In Search of Cool ground. War, flight and homecoming in Northeast Africa, pp. 262–273. London: James Curry.

PELIZZARI E. (1997) Possession et thérapie dans la Corne de l'Afrique. Paris.

POLIOMYELITIS prevalence surveys. Somalia. (1983) Weekly Epidemiological Record 58 (44): 341–42.

POPOV L.I. (1967) A medical study of goitre in Ethiopia. Ethiopian MJ 7: 5–14.

RESNIKOFF S., FILLIARD G., DELL'AQUILA B. & ABATTE E.A. (1989) Evolution de la situation épidémologique du trachome à Djibouti. Revue internationale du trachome et de pathologie oculaire tropicale et subtropicale et de santé publique 66: 129–142.

RESNIKOFF S., FILLIARD G., CARLIER C., LUZEAU R., AMEDEE–MANESME O. (1992) Assessment of vitamin A deficiency in the Republic of Djibouti. European J. Clinical Nutrition 46: 25–30.
Implications for visual impairment.

ROUAUD A (2004) Zar. (1) In the Horn of Africa and the Arabian peninsula. Encyclopaedia of Islam, XII: 455–56. Leiden: Brill.

SARGANT W. (1967) Witch doctoring, Zar and Voodoo: their relation to modern medicine. Proceedings of the Royal Socy of Medicine 60: 1055–1060.
Includes material from Ethiopia, Sudan.

SAVOLAINEN, Hannu (1997) Between discrimination and inclusion: persons with disabilities and services for them in Ethiopia today. In: H. Kokkala (Ed.) Providing Special Education For Those Who Need It In Developing Countries, 64–78. Helsinki: Min. Foreign Affairs.

SAVOLAINEN H. (2000) Special needs education: emerging in Ethiopia. In: H. Savolainen et al. (Ed.s) Meeting Special and Diverse Educational Needs, 84–94. Helsinki: Min. Foreign Affairs.

SAVOLAINEN H., KOKKALA H. & ALASUUTARI, Hanna (Ed.s) (2000) Meeting Special and Diverse Educational Needs. Making Inclusive Education a Reality. Helsinki: Min. Foreign Affairs of Finland, Dept International Development Cooperation; and Jyväskylä: Niilo Mäki Institute. 150 pp.
Includes Ethiopia.

SCHALLER K.F. (1959) Zur epidemiologie der Lepra in Aethiopien. Z. Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie 10: 79–94.

SCHNEIDER H. (1975) (Leprosy and other health problems in Hararghe, Ethiopia.) Doctoral thesis, Univ. Groningen.

SCHIER E., YECUNNOAMLACK T., & TEGEGNE T. (1988) Zur Situation epileptischer Patienten in einem afrikansichen Entwicklungsland: Nordwest Aethiopien. (The status of epileptic patients in a developing African country: Northwest Ethiopia.) Psychiatrie, Neurologie und medizinische Psychologie (Leipzig) 40: 490–99.

SCHOLLER, Heinrich (1975) Rehabilitationsarbeit in Aethiopien mit und fuer Blinde. (Rehabilitation work in Ethiopia with and for the blind.) Horus 2: 20–24, 46–48.
Professor Scholler wrote further items in German concerned with blind people in Ethiopia, listed on his website.

SISAY, Kebede (1997) Societal attitudes towards blind people and marriage relations to the sighted in Ethiopia. In: H. Kokkala (Ed.) Providing Special Education For Those Who Need It In Developing Countries, 103–120. Helsinki: Min. Foreign Affairs. (Based on Unpubl. M.A. thesis, Univ. Joensuu).

SOBOKA G. & SAUNDERSON P. (1996) Cost–effective footwear for leprosy control programmes: a recent study in rural Ethiopia. Leprosy Rev. 67: 208–10.

TAMRAT, Girmaye, KEBEDE, Yigzaw, ALEMU, Shitaye & MOORE, John (2001) The prevalence and characteristics of physical and sensory disabilities in Northern Ethiopia. Disability & Rehab. 23 (17) 799–804.

TARABINI–CASTELLANI G., AJAB A.M., FARAH M.A., ABDULLAHI M.Y., & MAO S.H. (1992) Research on Hansen's disease in Somalia. In: H.M. Adam & C.L. Geshekter (Ed.s) Proceedings of the First International Congress of Somali Studies, 888–894. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press.

TARIKU, Gebre (1996) Attitudes of society towards learning capabilities and characteristics of mentally retarded children in Ethiopia. Unpubl. M.A. thesis, Univ. Joensuu.

TARSITANI, Giancarlo, ADEN, Abdulaziz S. & MUZZI, Armando (1988) Programmes of Primary Health Care in Somalia. In: Annarita Puglielli (Ed.) Proceedings of the Third International Conference of Somali Studies, 189–193. Rome: Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore.

TAYE, Kibra (1993) Life within deafness (a poem from Ethiopia). In: M.D. Garretson (Ed.) Deafness: 1993–2013. A Deaf American monograph, volume 43, p. 32. Silver Spring, MD: National Assoc. of the Deaf.

TEFERI, Adnew Z. (1997) Integration of blind students in regular classrooms at Mulugeta Gedle school. In: H. Kokkala (Ed.) Providing Special Education For Those Who Need It In Developing Countries, 121–25. Helsinki, Min. Foreign Affairs. (Based on Unpubl. M.A. thesis, Univ. Joensuu).

TEKLE HAIMANOT, Redda (1985) Multiple sclerosis: a case report in an Ethiopian. Ethiopian MJ 23: 27–30.

TEKLE HAIMANOT R., ABEBE, Mekonnen, FORSGREN, Lars, GEBRE–MARIAM, Ayele, HEIJBEL, Jan, HOLMGREN, Gösta, & EKSTEDT, Jan (1991) Attitudes of rural people in Central Ethiopia toward epilepsy. Soc. Sci. Medcn. 32 (2) 203–209.

TEKLE HAIMANOT R., ABEBE M., GEBRE–MARIAM A., FORSGREN L., HEIJBEL J., HOLMGREN G. & EKSTEDT J. (1990) Community–based study of neurological disorders in rural central Ethiopia. Neuroepidemiology 9; 263–77.

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