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Home > Bibliography > North East Africa > Disability & Deafness in North East Africa: North East Africa: Egypt and Sudan (post 1955)

Disability & Deafness in North East Africa

Egypt, Sudan, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia

Introduction and Bibliography, mainly non–medical, with historical material and some annotation

Compiled, introduced and annotated by M. Miles
West Midlands, UK

For a list of abbreviations used in this document, consult the glossary.

Egypt and Sudan (post 1955)

ABDALLAH A., BADRAN A & GALAL S. (1964) Effect of Bilharziasis on the mental power and scholastic achievement of school children. J. Egyptian Public Health Assoc. 39: 135–.

`ABD ALLAH, Layla `Abd Allah Muhammad (1997) Ahkam al–akhras fi al–fiqh al–Islami. (M.A. thesis, Jamiat al–Azhar, 1996) Cairo: Maktabat al–Zahra. 447 pp.
(Comparative study of people who are ‘mute’ or ‘dumb,’ in Islamic law and religion.)

ABDEL–FATTAH, Mahmoud A. (2005) Arabic Sign Language: a perspective. J. Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 10 (2) 212–221.
Discussion of Arabic Sign Languages (ARSL) from a comparative linguistic point of view, illuminating some of the unity and diversity currently found in perceptions of ARSL and their everyday practice across the Arab world. (Brief mention of some Egyptian Sign Language signs).

ABD EL–KHALEK, Amira (2002) The cultural construction of disability. An ethnographic approach to women with disability in Egypt. Master's thesis, American Univ. Cairo.

ABD EL–KHALEK A. (2004) The cultural construction of women with disability in Egypt: an ethnographic approach. MIT Electronic J. Middle East Studies, 4: 91–106.

ABOLOU, Cosmas A. (2000) Co–ordination of services setting training of Mid–Level Rehabilitation Workers (MLWRs) and Community Based Rehabilitation Workers (CBRWs) and a resource centre for the State Ministry of Social and Cultural Affairs, Bahr El Jebel State, and the Norwegian Association of the Disabled (NAD), Juba, Southern Sudan. Unpubl. CBR action plan, CICH, Institute of Child Health, London. 37 pp.

AHMED, Haidar Abu (1975) Leprosy in the Sudan. Leprosy Rev. 46: 219–22.

AKRAT, Sarra Macawi (1991) In–service education for teachers of pupils with mental handicap: a survey of practice in Africa with specific reference to Sudan. Ahfad J. (Omdurman) 8 (2) 25–36.

ALLEN, Louise F (1989) The Situation of Children in Upper Egypt. Cairo: UNICEF. 156 pp.

ARAB CENTRE for Development and Future Research (1988) Arabic: [The social framework for the disabled in the Arab society.]
Paper presented to the Conference on the Prevention of Disability, Dec. 1988, Assoc. Institutions for Welfare of Special Categories and the Disabled. Cairo.

ASSOCIATION of Institutions for the Welfare of Special Categories and the Disabled (1988) Report discussing factors which limit the employment of newly rehabilitation disabled persons. Unpubl. (Cairo)

AZIZ I.A. (1976) Hydrocephalus in the Sudan. J. Royal Coll. Surgeons Edinburgh 21: 222–224.
Reports on 101 children with progressive hydrocephalus seen at Khartoum, 1971–74, and treated by insertion of shunts.

BAASHER, Taha (1960) Arabic: ["Five Year Plan" for Ministry of Health, Sudan].
Design of modern, decentralised psychiatric services, associated with regional health centres.

BAASHER T. (1961) Survey of mental illness in Wadi Haifa. World Mental Health 13: 4–.

BAASHER T. (1962) Some aspects of the history of the treatment of mental disorders in the Sudan. Sudan MJ new series 1 (1) 44–.

BAASHER T (1963) The new medical graduate and mental health. Sudan MJ 2 (1) 10–.
Need and efforts to inculcate basic notions of mental health treatment and care in initial training of generalist physicians in Sudan in the 1960s.

BAASHER T.A. & IBRAHIM H.H. (1976) Childhood psychiatric disorders in the Sudan. African J. Psychiatry 1: 67–78.

BADRI, Malik Babikir (1965) The use of finger drawing in measuring the Goodenough quotient of culturally deprived Sudanese children. J. Psychology 59: 333–334

BADRI M.B. (1972) Customs, traditions and psychopathology. Sudan MJ 10 (3) #.

EL BAKARY, Waguida (1999) The education of the hearing impaired in Egypt. In: Brelje (Ed.), Global Perspectives (q.v.) 69–79.
Notes on schools and their functioning, curriculum, teacher training, and innovations c. 1990, with 17 references (in transliterated Arabic).

BAKER, Patricia (1989) Programmes for disabled people in South Sudan. Physiotherapy 75: 488–92.
Progress of three programmes in the Western Equatoria region.

EL–BANNA M. (1992) The situation of the disabled in Egypt. In: Proceedings of the Conference on the Capabilities and Needs of Disabled Persons in the ESCWA Region: 20–28 November, 1989, Amman, Jordan, pp. 338–65. United Nations, 1992. E/ESCWA/SD/1992/2.
Substantial overview (600 pp.) of the regional situation.

BATTAIN, Tiziana (1997) Le rituel du zar en Egypte. De la souffrance à l'accomplissement. Unpubl. doctoral diss., Paris: EHESS.

BATTAIN T. (2004) Zar. (2) In Egypt. Encyclopaedia of Islam, XII: 456–57. Leiden: Brill.

BEIRAM M.M. (1974) Onchocerciasis in the Sudan. M.D. thesis, Univ. Khartoum.

BOULOS, Wasfy Aziz (1994) Egypt. In: K. Mazurek & M. Winzer (Ed.s) Comparative Studies in Special Education, 133–42. Washington D.C.: Gallaudet UP.

BRELJE, H. William (Ed.) (1999) Global Perspectives on the Education of the Deaf in Selected Countries. Hillsboro, Oregon: Butte. x + 423 pp.
Includes Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia.

BUENO J.T. (1961) Ophthalmological survey and preliminary studies on eye lesions in areas of onchocercal endemicity in the Republic of Sudan. Alexandria: WHO/EMRO

[CARITAS] Arabic: [Checklist for Developmental Assessment and how to use it.] Cairo: Seti Centre. 25 pp.

[CARITAS] Arabic: [Defining Cerebral Palsy.] Cairo: Seti Centre. 12 pp.

[CARITAS] Arabic: [How to Help Someone with Epilepsy.] Cairo: Seti Centre. 47 pp.

[CARITAS] Arabic: [My Child is Mentally Handicapped. What do I do?] Cairo: Seti Centre. 19 pp.

[CARITAS] Arabic: [The Rights, Needs and Role of Families with Disabled Child.] Cairo: Seti Centre. 36 pp.

[CARITAS] Arabic: [Training for Self–Reliance. Independence in wearing clothes.] Cairo: Seti Centre. 36 pp.

[CARITAS] Arabic: [Who is the Child with Down's Syndrome?] Cairo: Seti Centre. 12 pp.

CDC (2002) Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication — Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan, January 2001 — October 2002. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Nov 29; 51 (47) 1070–72.

CDC (2005) Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication — poliomyelitis outbreak in Sudan, 2004. MMWR Feb 4; 54 (4): 97–99.

CEDERBLAD, Marianne (1968) A Child Psychiatric Study on Sudanese Arab Children. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Supplement 200, pp. 1–230.
Book length social psychiatric survey of 1716 children aged three to fifteen years (899 boys, 817 girls) in three villages near Khartoum, Sudan. A more intensive study was done on a sample of 197 (113 boys, 84 girls) Coverage was given to socio–anthropological background, somatic health situation, survey of mental conditions and psychosomatic symptoms, various kinds of behavioural disturbance, mental retardation (pp. 182–87), and psychological testing, with discussion. Five case histories appear of children judged to be "probably imbecile" or "probably idiot" (pp. 183–84).

CEDERBLAD M. (1988) Behavioral disorders in children from different cultures. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 78: 85–92.
Swedish, Sudanese and Nigerian children compared

CEDERBLAD M. & RAHIM, Sheikh Idris A. (1986) Effects of rapid urbanization on child behaviour and health in a part of Khartoum, Sudan—1. Socio–economic changes 1965–1980. Soc. Sci. & Medcn. 22: 713–721.

CEDERBLAD M. & RAHIM S.I. (1989) A longitudinal study of mental health problems in a suburban population in Sudan. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 79: 537–43.

CONSTANTINIDES, Pamela (1985) Women heal women: spirit possession and sexual segregation in a Muslim society. Soc. Sci. & Medcn. 21 (6) 685–692.
Zar ceremony in Northern Sudan

CONWELL, Roy (1956) Love to the Loveless. Sudan Interior Mission.
On the Nyakma Leprosy Settlement, Sudan.

DEMERDASH A., KANDIL M., TOHAMY S., et al. (1985) The prevalence of mental subnormality in an Upper Egyptian village: a study of selected etiological factors. Banha MJ 2: 33–42.

DESOUKEY, M. A–A S. (1988) The link between disabilities and some demographic and socio–economic indicators in Egypt: a case study. Research Monograph Series No. 18, pp. 285–320. Cairo Demographic Centre.

DEVELOPMENT of Statistics of Disabled Persons: case studies of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. Working Paper, United Nations, 1983.

EDELSTAM, Anne (1984) Socializing the Deaf in Cairo. M.A. thesis, Dept Sociology, Anthropology & Psychology, American Univ. Cairo. 115 pp.


EGYPT. Min. Educ. (1989) Muzakkira fi sha'n al–mutattalibat al–tarbawiya li madaris al–tarbiya al–sama'ia. (Memo on educational specifications for schools for the deaf.) Cairo.

EGYPT. Min. Educ. (1990) Qarar wizari raqam 37 bi tarikh 28/1/1990 fi sha'n al–la'iha al–tan fiziya li madaris wa fusul al–tarbiya al khasa. (Ministerial Decree No. 37 of 28 Jan. 1990, concerning regulations for Special Education Schools and Classes.) Cairo.

EGYPT. Min. Educ., Division of Educational Information & Planning (1993) National Survey of Teaching Practices and Students Achievements. Cairo.

EGYPT. Min. Soc. Affairs (1970) Arabic: [Guide to Nursery Schools and Orphanages for Socially Vulnerable Children.] Cairo.

EGYPT. Min. Soc. Affairs (1987) Arabic: [Social Rehabilitation: a development message for the Disabled.] Cairo.

EGYPT. Min. Health (1987) Disability Survey. Publication 63/6. [Cairo.]

[EGYPTIAN FEDERATION for the Handicapped Welfare Agencies (1982) Arabic: Directory of Agencies for the Care and Rehabilitation of the Handicapped in the Arab Republic of Egypt. Cairo.]

EIZEIN H.A., BIRMINGHAM M.A., KARRAR Z.A., ELHASSAN A.A. & OMER A. (1997) Poliomyelitis outbreak and subsequent progress towards poliomyelitis eradication. Lancet 350 (9079) 715–16.

ELNOUR, Abdelsalam (1998) Studies on the etiology of endemic goiter in Sudan: the role of pearl millet. MSc.D. thesis, Univ. Uppsala. 50 pp.

ELSERRAG M.E. (1968) Psychiatry in the Northern Sudan: a study in comparative psychiatry. British J. Psychiatry 114: 945–48.
Based on over 2000 patients seen at the Clinic of Nervous Disorders, Khartoum North.

ELTOM M., HOFVANDER Y., TORELM I. & FELLSTROM B. (1984) Endemic goitre in the Darfur region (Sudan). Acta Medica Scandinavica 215: 467–75.

ENARSON D.A.(1976) Observations on onchocerciasis in the Sudan Republic; prevalence amongst four ethnic groups. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology 70 (4) 481–82.

FAHMY M. (1964) Initial exploring of the intelligence of Shilluk children. Vita Humana 7: 164–.
Testing children in Southern Sudan.

FAROUK AHMED KHITAM (1984) Pattern of disabilities and neurological complications of leprosy in Wau. MCM, Department of Community Medicine, Univ. Khartoum.

GARAS, Magdy (2000) Commitment to leprosy patients in Egypt. Z. Behinderung und Dritte Welt 11 (3) 110–12.

GAWAD M.S.A. (1985) Study of the educational guidance of the mentally handicapped among primary school children in Shebeen El–Koom Province. M.D. thesis, Cairo Univ.

GHOBRIAL, Talaat M. & VANCE, H. Robert (1988) Special Education in Egypt: an overview. 13 pp. ERIC Ed 299721.

GIRGIS, Sabry (1961) Arabic: [Mental health in everyday life.] Cairo: Dar El–Nahda.

GIRGIS S. & TAHER Y. (1957) Arabic: [A statistical study of epilepsy among elementary school students.] J. Egyptian Med. Assoc. 40 (6) 85–.
Early survey among 15,519 school children.

GOBRIAL, Claire Fahim (1979) Psychiatric clinics for Egyptian school children, focus: the Garden City Psychiatric Clinic of Cairo. In: N.V. Ciaccio (Ed.) Child Development in Egypt. Cairo: American Univ. Cairo.

GOLDSCHMIDT, Arthur Jr. (2000) Biographical Dictionary of Modern Egypt. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
pp. 81–83, brief biography of Dr. Taha Husayn. (See autobiography by HUSAYN below; also MALTI–DOUGLAS, 1988, in History, below).

HAFEZ M. (1983) Demographic trends of Down's Syndrome in Egypt. J. Egyptian Med. Assoc. 66: 495–507.

GROTBERG, Edith (1983) Research in the Sudan on child and family concerns. Child Today 12: 18–21.
Studies on childrearing practices, female circumcision, and services for disabled children.

GROTBERG E. (1990) Mental health aspects of Zar for women in Sudan. In: E.D. Rothblum & E. Cole (Ed.s) Women's Mental Health in Africa, 15–24. New York: Haworth.

HAFEZ M. (1983) Demographic trends of Down's Syndrome in Egypt. J. Egyptian Med. Assoc. 66: 495–507.

HAFEZ M. (1984) Etiological factors in mental subnormality among Egyptian children. Gazette of the Egyptian Pediatric Assoc. 32: 65–72.

HAGRASS, Heba (1998) Disability, gender and marriage. M.A. thesis, Dept Sociology, Anthropology, Psychology & Egyptology, American Univ. Cairo. 134 pp.

HAJRAS, Hiba (2002) Work in the life of a disabled woman. Intl Rehab. Rev. 51(2) & 52(1): 43–44.

HAMZA, Omer & HEMEDAN, Sumaya (2001) Sudan Report. Presented at UN African Regional Workshop on Disability Statistics, 10–14 September 2001, Kampala, Uganda.

HASEEB M.A. (1959) Poliomyelitis in the Sudan. J. Trop. Med. Hygiene 62 (2) 45–46.
Polio antibodies were present in sera of 94 urban and rural Sudanese children. The disease seemed to follow the pattern of other African countries, with high incidence occurring early in life, but low morbidity.

EL–HASSAN L.A., KHALIL E.A.G. & EL–HASSAN A.M. (2002) Socio–cultural aspects of leprosy among the Masalit and Hawsa tribes in the Sudan. Leprosy Review 73: 20–28.

HASSAN M. (1956) Mongolism. Sudan MJ (old series) 1 (4) 50–.
Reports on some cases of Down's syndrome in Kosti and Port Sudan.

HASSAN, Nazira M. (1958) An educational program for mentally retarded children in Egypt. Master's diss., Univ. Maryland. 99 pp.

HUSSAIN M.A., ALI E.M. & AHMED H.S. (1991) Otitis media in Sudanese children: presentation and bacteriology. EAMJ 68: 679–85.

HUSSIEN F.H. & VALSIK J.A. (1973) Popular medicine and traditional mutilations in Egyptian Nubia. (Parts II & III) Ethomedizin II (3/4) 220–228.
Parts II & III concern "Cosmetic Mutilations," and "Genital Mutilations of Women." (For Part I, see VALSIK). (First author's name is given as Hussien throughout).

IBRAHMI A.A. (1987) Onchocercose au Soudan: situation epidémiologique au Sud–Ouest. Médecine tropicale: revue du Corps de santé colonial 47 (4) 333–37.

IBRAHIM H.H. & YOUNIS Y. (1978) Some aspects of psychiatry in the Sudan. Tropical Doctor 8: 165–81.

IBRAHIM, Safia S. (1989) Poliomyelitis in Egypt: efficacy of mass campaigns. Intl Disability Studies 11: 171–74.

ILO (1987) Report of the Workshop on the Development of Policies and Programmes for Social and Vocational Rehabilitation For Disabled Women in the Middle East Region, held in Amman, Jordan. Amman: ILO. 79 pp.

ILO (2004) Sudan Country Profile. Employment of People with Disabilities: the impact of legislation (East Africa). Geneva: ILO. 15 pp.

JACOBSEN, Frode F. (1998) Theories of Sickness and Misfortune among the Hadanowa Beja of the Sudan. Narratives as points of entry into Beja cultural knowledge. London: Kegan Paul International.
Amidst Jacobsen's lengthy and detailed medical anthropological study, some Beja cultural ideas of disability and therapies are embedded, e.g. pp. 59–73, 128–129, on (what might appear to biomedically trained Europeans as) epilepsy, various mental or psychological afflictions; bone–setting and other healing.

KAMBAL A. (1969) Endemic goitre in Darfur. M.S. thesis, Univ. Khartoum.

KASHIF, Muhammad Sadiq (1987) Taha Husayn basiran. Cairo: Maktabat al–Khanji. 248 pp.
Biography of Taha Husayn, with reference also to blindness in literature

KELLY F.C. & SNEDDON W.W. (1960) Prevalence and geographical distribution of endemic goitre. Endemic Goitre, pp. 27–233. Geneva, World Health Organisation.
In this global study, pp. 131–37 cover goitre reported in Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, French and British Somaliland, with references from 1905 to 1958 (p. 224).

KOTBY M.N. (1979) Egypt. In: J. Wendler (Ed.) 75 Jahre Phoniatrie, Festschrift zu Ehren von Hermann Gutzmann, 95 100. Berlin: Humboldt Universität.

EL–KOUSSY, Abdel Aziz (1962, Sixth edn) Arabic: [Foundations of mental health.] Cairo: Maktabat Al Nahda Al–Misriyyah.

LABABIDI, Lesley & El–ARABI, Nadia (2002) Silent No More. Special needs people in Egypt. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. xx + 195 pp. + 16 colour plates.
Also listed below in 1601–1955 section, with notes on historical material.

LAMB V.L. (1996) A cross–national study of quality of life factors associated with patterns of elderly disablement. Soc. Sci. & Medcn. 42: 363–77.
Study on non–institutionalised individuals from Bahrain, Burma, DPR Korea, Egypt, Indonesia, Jordan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tunisia.

LAMB V.L. (1997) Gender differences in correlates of disablement among the elderly in Egypt. Soc. Sci. & Medcn. 45: 127–36.

LANDMINE Monitor Report 2004. SUDAN.
Carefully compiled and annually updated report, including sections on "Landmine Casualties," "Survivor Assistance," and "Disability Policy and Practice" (the last being very brief).

LANE S.D., MIKHAIL B.I., REIZIAN A., et al. (1993) Sociocultural aspects of blindness in an Egyptian delta hamlet: visual impairment versus visual disability. Med. Anthropology 15: 245–60.

LEACH, Tom (1990) Disabled refugees: report of an enquiry into the situation of disabled Sudanese refugees in Uganda. Frome, U.K.: Action on Disability and development. 22 pp.

EL–MAHI, Tigani (1960) Rural Areas and Mental Health. WHO Regional Office, Eastern Mediterranean.
Senior Sudanese psychiatrist, recommending decentralised mental health services for Sudan as part of basic health care, rather than building mental hospitals.

MAHMOUD A. (1990) Arabic: [Sport and welfare for the disabled.] Cairo: Maktabat Alnahda Al–misrya.

MAHMOUD A.A. (Ed.) (1994) A Guidebook of Organizations for the Care and Rehabilitation of the Disabled in Egypt. Cairo: Union of Organizations for the Care of People with Special Needs.

MAHMOUD E.A., SHEIKH A.H., DOMEIKA M.A., & MARDH P.A. (1994) Prevalence of Trachoma among Displaced Persons in Sudan – a clinical and seroepidemiological study. Eye 8: 130–133.

MATHIANG, Margaret M. (2004) Post war strategies for enabling the effective participation of war–disabled person(s) in the development of Southern Sudan. Presented at Disability Studies Conference, Lancaster, July 2004.

McDOUGALL A.C. (1975) Leprosy in the Sudan. Leprosy Review 46: (226).

McGHEE, Glen D. (1987) CBR Sudan, and Teaching Programme, Sudan. Unpubl. CBR Action Plan, CICH, Inst. Child Health, London. 100 pp.

MEIDANY Y.M.E., GAAFARY M.M.E. & AHMAD I. (2003) Cross–cultural adaptation and validation of an Arabic Health Assessment Questionnaire for use in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Joint Bone Spine 70 (3) 195–202.
Validated for functional disability by use with patients in Egypt, Sudan and five other Arab countries.

MEINARDUS, Otto F.A. (1999) Two Thousand Years of Coptic Christianity. Cairo: American Univ. Cairo Press.
The continuation is noted, from antiquity to the present, of a healing ministry within the Coptic Church, wherein people with various physical and mental impairments are healed by the prayers and actions of holy persons; or by their faith in the efficacy of the saint's relics to evoke the power of God; or via some other theological construction (pp. 97–110). One example of a healing shrine is titled "The Lourdes in the Desert: Saint Menas" (pp. 151–54), situated about 50 miles southwest of Alexandria. (See GODRON, below).

MICHAILAKIS, Dimitris (1997) Government Implementation of the Standard Rules as Seen by Member Organizations of the World Federation of the Deaf. (Reprinted on website of the Institute on Independent Living).
pp. 33–34 concern the situation of deaf people in Egypt, as reported by the national organisation.

MINA, Fayez M. (1987) [Sonderpädagogik in] Ägypten. In: K.J. Klauer & W. Mitter (Ed.s) Vergleichende Sonderpädagogik. Handbuch der Sonderpädagogik Band 11, Berlin.

MINA F.M. (1983) Birnamij i'dad mu'allimi al'atfal al'mu'awwaquin fi misr. [Teacher training programme for teachers of children with disabilities in Egypt.] In: Majmu'at buhuth wa magalat fil tarbiya. Cairo: Dar al–thaqafa lil tiba'a wal nashr.

MOHAMED, Haidar Abu Ahmed (1985) Leprosy — the Moslem attitude. Leprosy Review 56: 17–21.
Based in Sudan. Differentiates some traditional views and practices found in Muslim–majority countries, from the orthodox Islamic teaching based on a few verses in the Qur'an and sayings of the prophet Muhammad.

EL–MOMEN F.M.A. (1978) Vocational rehabilitation in the Arab Republic of Egypt. In: Report on the ILO/SIDA African Regional Seminar on Organisation of Co–operatives for Handicapped Persons, 108–110. Geneva: ILO.

MOURAD M.I., FARGHALY N.F. & MOHAMED H.G. (1993) Hearing impairment: is it a public health problem among primary school pupils in Alexandria? J. Egyptian Public Health Assoc. 68: 703–726.
Hearing tests were conducted on 196 primary school pupils. The school environment was studied for noise level and crowding. Impairments were found among 24% (by audiometry) and 36% (tympanometry). Half the children with audiometric loss were reported by teachers as poor achievers.

MURSI, Kamal Ibrahim (1970) al–Takhalluf al–`aqli wa–athar al–ri`ayah wa–al–tadrib fih. 460 pp.
Concerned with mental retardation in Egypt

NAGI, Saad Zaghloul (2001) Poverty in Egypt: human needs and institutional capacities. Oxford: Lexington Books.
Ch. 4, "Health, disability, and poverty."

NATVIG, Richard Johan (1998) Arabic writings on Zar. Sudanic Africa 9: 163–178.
Lists 90 items on Zar in Arabic (transliterated) from 1880 onward, and also 24 items in other languages.

NOUR, Osman E.H.M. (2005) Child Disability in some countries of the MENA region: magnitude, characteristics, problems and attempts to alleviate consequences of impairments. Paper presented at the Twenty Fifth IUSSP International Population Conference.
Includes some discussion of Sudan child disability.

OKASHA A. (1966) A cultural psychiatric study of el–Zar cult in UAR. Brit. J. Psychiatry 112: 1217–1221.

OLIVE J.M., GADIR A. & ABBAS M. (1984) Prevalence of residual paralysis from paralytic poliomyelitis in some urban and semi–rural areas of the Sudan, November 1982. J. Tropical Pediatrics 30 (6) 329–33.

POLIOMYELITIS prevalence surveys. Sudan. (1984) Weekly Epidemiological Record 59 (6): 42.

PFISTER M. (1958) Report of a visit to Egypt, EM/Ment/17, Alexandria, WHO/EMRO.
Review of mental health services.

PFISTER M (1958) Report of a Visit to Sudan, February, EM/Ment/9, WHO/EMRO, November 1958.
Follow–up visit after KRAUS (1953) noting modest developments along community–based lines.

RAHIM, Sheikh Idris A. & CEDERBLAD, Marianne (1984) Effects of rapid urbanization on child behaviour in a part of Khartoum, Sudan. J. Child Psychology & Psychiatry 25: 629–44.

RAHIM S.I. & CEDERBLAD M. (1986) Effects of rapid urbanization on child behaviour and health in a part of Khartoum, Sudan—2. Psycho–social influences on behaviour. Soc. Sci. & Medcn. 22: 723–30.

[REPORT of Conference on the Future of Services for the Disabled in Egypt: particularly the Mentally Disabled. Cairo 28/2 – 1/3/1990. (Arabic)] Cairo: [CARITAS. Seti Centre] 374 pp.

SABRY, Sarah (2005) The Social Aid and Assistance programme of the government of Egypt — a critical review. Environment and Urbanization 17 (2) 27–42.
Based on needs revealed in a study of Cairo households living in poverty. The Social Aid programme aims to provide income support to people such as the elderly, widows, disabled people, who have no means of self–support. The study suggests some shortcomings in the scheme.

SALIB E. & YOUAKIM S. (2001) Spiritual healing in elderly psychiatric patients: a case–control study in an Egyptian psychiatric hospital. Aging and Mental Health 5: 366–70.

SALIM A.R. & SHEIKH H.A. (1975) Trachoma in the Sudan. An epidemiological study. British J. Ophthalmology 59 (10) 600–604.

SARGANT W. (1967) Witch doctoring, Zar and Voodoo: their relation to modern medicine. Proceedings of the Royal Socy of Medcn. 60: 1055–1060.
Includes material from Ethiopia, Sudan.

EL–SAYED A.H. et al. (1983) Prevalence of residual paralysis from paralytic poliomyelitis in some urban and semi–rural areas of Sudan. Arab Med. Bull. 5 (5–6) 5–20.

EL–SAYED N.A., MAHFOUZ A.A., NOFAL L., et al. (1998) Iodine deficiency disorders among school children in upper Egypt: an epidemiological study. J. Tropical Pediatrics 44: 270–74.
Screening of 6750 schoolchildren aged 8–10. Goitre prevalence rate of 34.6%.

SEBEH A.G. (1996) Evaluation of community based rehabilitation for disabled children in urban slums in Egypt. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. London.
Studies comparing developmental and family outcomes of three programs for young children with mental retardation in the slums of Cairo and Alexandria. The programs were a Community Based Rehabilitation project, an Outreach project with trained professionals, and a project based at a Mother and Child Health centre.

SHAHEEN H., KANDIL R., & EL ZAWAHRY M. (1983) Familial mental retardation and consanguinity in Upper Egypt. Assiut MJ 7: 213–19.

AL–SHAHI, Ahmed (1986) Spirit possession and healing. The Zar among the Shaygiyya of Northern Sudan. In: A Al–Shahi (Ed.) Themes from Northern Sudan, 108–121. London: Ithaca.

SHAKER, Eveleen (1995) Arabic: [Right of My Son to Live. A True Story.] Cairo: El Haya'h El Ama.

EL–SHARKAWY, Mohamed Tarek (1997) The Arabic braille: evaluation and suggestions for modification. M.A. thesis, Arabic Language Inst., American Univ. Cairo. 206 pp.

SCHUYLER, Philip D. (1995) Sounds of light and hope. Natural History 104 (November, No. 11): 34–43.
Concerned with blind entertainers in Egypt

SHUKRALLAH, Ala'a (1991) CBR Action Plan, Egypt. London: Institute of Child Health.

SHUKRALLAH A. (1996) Prevention, Early Detection and Rehabilitation of Children with Special Needs. Cairo: Assoc. for Health & Environmental Development.

SHUKRALLAH A. (1997) Childhood Disability Project: Final Progress Report. Cairo: Assoc. for Health & Environmental Development. 42 pp.

SHUKRALLAH A. (1998) NGO and disability activities in Egypt. In: F Hossain & S Myllylä (Ed.s) NGOs Under Challenge. Dynamics and drawbacks in development, 142–50. Helsinki: Min. Foreign Affairs of Finland.

SHUKRALLAH A., MOSTAFA, Hoda, & MAGDI, Safia (1997) The Current State of the Disability Question in Egypt. Preliminary National Study. North–South INSERM Network & AHED, & AHRTAG. 74 pp.

SHUKRALLAH A. & SALINES Georges (Ed.) (1997) Enfance et Handicap: Conceptes et Strategies. Actes du Seminaire ... Mai 1997. Cairo: Centre Français de Culture et Cooperation.

SOLIMAN, Salah M. (1976) A comprehensive medical and audiological approach to deafness through prevention, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and research. In: F.B. Crammatte & A.B. Crammatte (Ed.s) Full Citizenship for All Deaf People. Seventh World Congress of the World Federation of the Deaf, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., July 31 – August 7, 1975, pp. 181–84.
Medical/audiological work in Egypt.

SOLIMAN S.M. (1979) Early identification of hearing loss: Egypt's experience. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Auditory Techniques, Pasadena, California, Feb. 14–17, 1979. (No pagination)

SOLIMAN S.M. & ABBAS, Fouad (1976) Acupuncture in the treatment of deafness of different etiologies. In: F.B. Crammatte & A.B. Crammatte (Ed.s) Full Citizenship for All Deaf People. Seventh World Congress of the World Federation of the Deaf, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., July 31 – August 7, 1975, pp.166–69.
Studies in Egypt showed no positive results of acupuncture with 23 patients having sensorineural hearing loss.

TEMTAMY S.A., KANDIL M.R., DEMERDASH A.M., et al. (1994) An epidemiological/genetic study of mental subnormality in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Clinical Genetics 46: 347 51.
Random sample of 3,000 urban & rural subjects; 116 cases of mental retardation, prevalence of 3.9%; with 65% parental consanguinity.

TIZAZU T. & MBURU F.M. (1983) Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Southern Sudan. Soc. Sci. & Medcn. 17: 1785–88.

TOUBBEH J., SOLIMAN S., & YATES J. (1976) Communication for hearing–handicapped people in the Arab world. In: H.J. Oyer (Ed.) Communication for the Hearing Handicapped. An international perspective, 395–419 Baltimore:Univ. Park Press.
Though mainly concerned with Tunisia, there are useful sections on development of services and deaf organisations in Egypt, Lebanon, Syria and the United Arab Emirates.

TVEDT, T. (2000) An Annotated Bibliography of the Southern Sudan.
Useful section on Health in Vol. I, pp. 361–404.

UNESCO (1988) Review of the Present Situation in Special Education. ED–88/WS/38. Paris. iii + 134 + xvi pp.
Country summaries include: Egypt (pp. 42–44).

UNESCO (1995) Review of the Present Situation in Special Needs Education. ED–95/WS–7. Paris. 249 pp.
Country summaries include: Egypt (98–100).

UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC, Min. Educ. (1960) Education of Mentally Deficient Children. Cairo. 24 pp.

UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC, Min. Educ. (1969) Ministerial Decree No. 156 of 24 Sept. 1969 Relative to Statutes of Special Schools and Classes. Cairo. 46 pp.
Published March 1971. Also available on ERIC Ed 060238. English–language abstract, providing outline of legal status and extent of special education in the United Arab Republic.

VALSIK J.A. & HUSSIEN F.H. (1973) Popular medicine and traditional mutilations in Egyptian Nubia (Part I). Ethnomedizin 2 (3–4) 117–228.
Part I, Popular Medical Practice (pp. 217–220, refs pp. 227–28) has Valsik as first author. (See HUSSIEN, above, for parts II and III).

VANCE, H. Robert & GHOBRIAL, Talaat Mansour (1988) Special Education in Egypt: an overview. ERIC Ed 299721.

WAINES, Nahed (1979) Child mental health in Egypt. In: N.V. Ciaccio (Ed.) Child Development in Egypt. Cairo: American Univ. Cairo.

WESTLEY, David (1993) Mental Health and Psychiatry in Africa, London: Zell.
Bibliography with some North East African material.

YOUNIS Y.O. (1978) Attitudes of Sudanese urban and rural population to mental illness. J. Trop. Medcn. & Hygiene 81: 248–51.

YOUNT, Kathryn M. & AGREE, Emily (2005) Differences in disability among older women and men in Egypt and Tunisia. Demography 42: 169–187.

ZAYD, Samirah Abu (1988) Proposed programme for the upbringing of disabled children such as to limit disability. Paper submitted to the Conference on the Prevention of Disability, Dec. 1988, Assoc. of Institutions for Welfare of Special Categories and the Disabled. Cairo.

EL ZEIN H.A., BIRMINGHAM M.E., KARRAR Z.A., EL HASSAN A.A. & OMER A. (1998) Rehabilitation of the expanded programme on immunization in Sudan following a poliomyelitis outbreak. Bull. World Health Organization 76 (4) 335–41.

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