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Disability and Social Responses in Some Southern African Nations

Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (former Zaire), Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zambia, Zimbabwe. A bibliography, with introduction and some historical items

Compiled, introduced and annotated by M. Miles
West Midlands, UK
m99miles@hotmail.com

For a list of abbreviations used in this document, consult the glossary.

Botswana, Namibia, & General Items

ABOSI, Okechukwu C. (1996) Early childhood education of children with disabilities in Botswana. AJSNE 1 (1) 33–40.

ABOSI O. (1996) Special education in Botswana. UNISE Bull. Special issue, July 1996, 6–7.

ABOSI O. (1997) Teaching Batswana children with special needs: what do we know. In: P.T.M. Marope (Ed.) Teaching and Teacher Education in Botswana: a handbook of research on education, 334–350. [Gab.]: Lentswe la Lesedi.

ABOSI O. (1999) Integrating the disabled children into ordinary schools in Botswana: to be or not to be? In: O. Abosi et al. (Ed.) Issues on Access and Opportunity (q.v.) pp. 54–68.

ABOSI C.O. (2000) Trends and issues in special education in Botswana. J. Spec. Educ. 34 (1) 48–53.

ABOSI O., DIDIMALANG C., GABANAKEMO C. & NWAOGU P. (Eds.) (1999) Issues on Access and Opportunity to Basic Education for Disabled Children in Botswana. Proceedings of the second National Seminar of Botswana Council for the Disabled, November 1998. Gabarone. Gab: Botswana Cncl for the Disabled. 74 pp.

ABOSI C.O. & OZOJI E.D. (1985) Educating the Blind. A descriptive approach. Ibadan: Spectrum.

ADELOYE A. (2001) Management of infantile hydrocephalus in Central Africa. Tropical Doctor 31: 67–70.

Africa Journal of Special Needs Education. Kampala: UNISE. 1996–>.

AFRICAN REHABILITATION INSTITUTE (1985) Report on the African Regional Workshop on Vocational Rehabilitation in Rural Areas, Lusaka, Zambia, July 1–19, 1985. Hrr.

AFRICAN REHABILITATION INSTITUTE (1985) Report of the Workshop on the Development of Policies and Programmes for Disabled Women and Female Disabled Children in the Southern Africa Region, 16–27 September, 1985. Hrr: ILO, AGFUND & NORAD. 31 pp.

AFRICAN REHABILITATION INSTITUTE (1986) Report on the African Regional Workshop for Eastern and Southern Africa on Rehabilitation of the Visually Impaired, Harare, Zimbabwe, 10–14 March, 1986. Hrr.

AFRICAN REHABILITATION INSTITUTE [1987] Report on the Regional Workshop for Chief Rehabilitation Executives in Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, October 27 – November 21, 1986. Hrr.

AFRICAN REHABILITATION INSTITUTE (1989) Report of the Regional Conference on Community–Oriented Service Delivery Systems for Disabled Persons, Harare, April 1989. Hrr.

AFRICAN REHABILITATION INSTITUTE (1999) Report of the Meeting of the Second Technical Advisory Committee, Harare, 15–16 March 1999. Harare. 24 pp.

African Rehabilitation Journal. Hrr: NASCOH Dec. 1983 – Dec. 1989, Vol. 1 (1–2), 2 (1–12).

African Task Force on Iodine Deficiency Disorders (1990) Report of the Fourth meeting, Dar es Salaam, 28/2 – 2/3, 1990. UNICEF, ICCIDD, WHO. 54 pp.

AMAYO, Gershom A. (1984) Indigenous traditions of early childhood education in Africa: their meaning and relevance. (Adapted from an article in Basic Education Resource Centre Bull., Seventh issue). ED–85/WS/4. Paris: UNESCO. 12 pp.

§ ANDOR L.E. (1983) Psychological and Sociological Studies of the Black People of Africa, South of the Sahara 1960–1975: an annotated select bibliography. Johannesburg: Natl Inst. Personnel Res. 397 pp.

ANIMASHAUN A. (1971) Aetiology of cerebral palsy in African children. Afr. J. Med. Sci. 2: 165–71.

Appropriate Aids and Equipment for Disabled People in Africa. Report of a seminar in Harare, Zimbabwe, March 20–26, 1988. Bromma, Sweden: ICTA Information Centre.

ARMITAGE D. (1982) The development of rehabilitation services in Botswana: the contribution of the Botswana Red Cross Society, November 1980 – April 1982. League of Red Cross Societies, Southern Africa Prog.

ASHIPALA S.P., DANIEL P., HAIKALI M.N., ISRAEL N., LINUS F.T. et al. (1994) The development of a dictionary of Namibian Sign Language. In: Erting et al. (Eds.) The Deaf Way (q.v.) 342–46.

Atlas of the African Child [1995] UNECA & UNICEF. (pp. 62 63, Iodine Deficiency Disorders and polio).

AYAZ I.A. & MHANDO P.A. (Eds.) (1984) Report of the Convention on Disablement in the Community and the Commonwealth, 13–16th June, 1984, Arusha, Tanzania. Tanzania Cwlth Secretariat.

BABCOCK S. (1983) Botswana: existing and planned educational services for the handicapped. Unpubl. paper, Botswana Cncl for the Disabled, Gab.

BACKMAN D. (1983) Special education in Botswana: hints and directions for a policy on the education of handicapped children. Unpubl. paper, Min. Educ., Botswana, & SIDA.

BACKMAN K. & KESUYPILA S. (1987) Special education information and ideas. Gab, Min. Educ.

BALCH J., CAMMACK D., JOHNSON P. & MORGAN R. (Eds.) (1995) Transcending the Legacy. Children in the new Southern Africa. Amsterdam: Africa–Europe Institute; Harare: Southern Afr. Res. & Documentation Centre; Nairobi: UNICEF. 242 pp.

BAPINDI C.S. (1985) Relationship between attitudes of family members of handicapped children and their role in informed education and training of their handicapped children. Unpubl. diss., B.Ed. (Nursing), UNBO. 36 pp.

BARR J. & JÖNSSON T. (1984) Special Education. Report prepared for the Government of the Republic of Botswana. UNESCO, FMR/ED/SCM/84/132.

BEN–TOVIM, David I. (1987) Development Psychiatry: Mental Health and Primary Health Care in Botswana. London: Tavistock. 233 pp. ISBN 0422794007.

BIGALA, John C.B., SEBONI, Naomi M. & MONAU, Ruth M. (1993) The Learning Needs of Botswana Children in Standards One and Two. Gab: UNICEF. 41 pp.

BOTSWANA. (1986) The Situation of Children and Women in Botswana. Gab: GoB & UNICEF.

BOTSWANA. National Policy on Care for People with Disabilities. Gab: Min. Health. 10 pp.

BOTSWANA. (1986) Proceedings of a Workshop on the Situation of Children and Women in Botswana, 20–25 October 1985. Gab: GoB & UNICEF. 110 pp.

BOTSWANA. (1994) Investing in Today's Joy, Tomorrow's Wealth: a national programme of action for the children of Botswana (1993–2003). Gab: GoB. 116 pp.

BOTSWANA, Min. Educ. [1984] Policy: Special Education, 1984. Gab: GoB. 13 pp.

BOTSWANA, Min. Hlth (1996) National Policy on Care for People with Disabilities. Gab: GoB.

BOTSWANA, Special Serv. Unit for Handic., Min. Health (1980) Support Services for Disabled Persons in Botswana. Gab: GoB. 16 pp.

BOTSWANA, Special Serv. Unit for Handicapped, Min. Health [1981] Sample Survey on Children with Special Educational Needs (1980–1981). Gab: GoB. 24 pp.

BOTSWANA (1993) Report of the National Commission on Education. Gab: GoB. ISBN 9991210581. (Ch. 9, Spec. Educ., 307–33)

BOTSWANA COUNCIL for the Disabled (1997) A Directory of Services for Persons with Disabilities in Botswana. Gab: Botswana Council for the Disabled. 75 pp.

Botswana Red Cross Rehabilitation Services. (1982) Geneva: League of Red Cross Societies.

BOTSWANA Red Cross (1988) Mid Term evaluation report of the Botswana Red Cross Society's Community Based Rehabilitation programme for the disabled. Gab

Coalition for Biomedical and Health Research?

BOTSWANA Red Cross (1991) CBH&R Project North 1986 – 1991, Botswana Red Cross, Statistical Results, Project Villages: Mandunyane, Shashe Mooke, Tonota and Shashe Station. Gab.

BRODIN J. & MOLOSIWA S. (2000) Support for families with children with mental retardation in Botswana, Southern Africa. Intl J. Rehab. Res. 23: 163–67.

BROWN, Henry W. (1978) Vocational rehabilitation of disabled persons in the Republic of Botswana. [ILO]

BRUHNS B.I. [et al.] (1995) Disability and Rehabilitation in Namibia: a national survey. Wdk: Namibian Econ. Policy Res. Unit. x + 168 pp. (See also earlier version, under NAMIBIA, 1995).

BURCK D.J. (1987) Community rehabilitation services. In: Report on the Regional Workshop for Chief Rehabilitation Executives in Africa, 32–37. Hrr.

BURRESS, James R. & PERLMAN, Leonard G. (1980) Developments in Services for Handicapped People – Africa. A Project Report. Washington, D.C.: People–to–People Comm. for the Handicapped. 224 pp.

COLLETTA, Nat J., BALACHANDER, Jayshree & LIANG, Xiaoyan (1996) The Condition of Young Children in Sub–Saharan Africa. The convergence of health, nutrition, and early education. Washington D.C.: World Bank. xiii + 43 pp. ISBN 0–8213–3677–0.

COMAROFF J. (1981) Healing and cultural transformation: the Tswana of Southern Africa. Soc.Sci.M. 15B: 368–78. (Botswana)

CONJWA, Nojuzola H. (1992) Perspectives on teaching children with special educational needs in mainstream schools in Namibia. Small steps towards integration. Unpubl. M.Ed. diss., Univ. Birmingham.

CONTE, Anthony E. (1994) Blurring the line between regular and special education. J. Instructional Psychl. 21: 103–113. (Botswana)

CORLETT J.T. (1985) Minimum muscular fitness of urban Tswana children. Child: Care, Health & Development 11: 37–43.

CORNIELJE, Huib, JELSMA, Jennifer & MOYO, Alice (Eds.) (1999) Proceedings of the Workshop on Research Informed Rehabilitation Planning in Southern Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe, 29 June to 3 July, 1998. Leiden: Leidse Hogeschool; Harare: Univ. Zimbabwe. 125 pp. + diskette.

CSAPO M. (1987) Special education in sub–Saharan Africa. IJSE 2: 41–67.

DALE J.R. & BEN–TOVIM D.I. (1984) Modern or traditional? A study of treatment preference for neuropsychiatric disorders in Botswana. Brit. J. Psychiatry No. 145, 187–92.

Devindex Botswana: index to literature on economic and social development in Botswana. (Annual) Addis Ababa: UN Econ. Commission for Africa.

DEVLIEGER P. (1994) Culture–based concepts and social life of disabled persons in sub–Saharan Africa: the case of the deaf. In: Erting et al. (Eds.) (q.v.) 85–93.

DEVLIEGER P.J. (1998) Physical ‘disability’ in Bantu languages: understanding the relativity of classification and meaning. Intl J. Rehab. Res. 21: 51–62.

DEVLIEGER P.J. (1999) Frames of reference in African proverbs on disability. Intl J. Disability Development & Educ. 46: 439–451.

DEVLIEGER P.J. (2000) The logic of killing disabled children: infanticide, Songye cosmology, and the colonizer. In: J. Hubert (Ed.) Madness, Disability and Social Exclusion. The archaeology and anthropology of ‘difference’ 159–167. London: Routledge.

Directory of National Committees on Disability, or Similar Bodies, 1991. Vienna: UN Centre for Soc. Dev. & Humanitarian Affairs. (Entries for Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe.)

Directory of Non–Governmental Organizations (1985). Gab: NORAD. (Botswana. Disability–concerned NGOs, pp. 51–75).

Directory of Special Educational Provision for Handicapped Children in Developing Commonwealth Countries. Second edn. 1973. London: Cwlth Fndn. (Botswana p. 10; Kenya pp. 37–45; Malawi pp. 47–49; Tanzania pp. 81–86; Zambia pp. 97–100.)

Disability Frontline. Quarterly newsletter of Southern African Federation of the Disabled (SAFOD), Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. # –>

EDGERTON, Robert (1980) Traditional treatment for mental illness in Africa: a review. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 4: 167–89.

ERTING C.J., JOHNSON R.C., SMITH D.L. & SNIDER B.D. (1994) The Deaf Way. Perspectives from the International Conference on Deaf Culture [1989]. Washington D.C.: Gallaudet UP.

EVANS, Judith L. (1970) Children in Africa: a review of psychological research. New York: Columbia Univ., Teachers College Press. 115 pp.

EVANS J.L. [Ed.] (1994) Child Rearing Practices and Beliefs in Sub–Saharan Africa. Report of a Workshop held in Windhoek, Namibia.

FADJUKOFF P., LYYTINEN H., MÄKI O., AHONEN T., CHAKULIMBA O.C. & MULENGA K. (1997) Building infrastructure for special needs education: developing rehabilitation services for children with learning disabilities. In: H. Kokkala (Ed.) (q.v.) 26–48. (incl. Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe)

FAVAZZA, Armando & FAHEEN, AHMED D. (1982) Themes in Cultural Psychiatry, an annotated bibliography 1975–1980. Columbia: Univ. Missouri Press. 194 pp. (Contains some African material. (See also entry under Favazza in historical section 6.0 below).

FRYERS T. (1986) Screening for developmental disabilities in developing countries: problems and perspectives. In: K. Marfo, S. Walker & B. Charles (Eds.) Childhood Disability in Developing Countries. Issues in habilitation and special education, 27–40. New York: Praeger.

GABANAKEMO C. (1989) Botswana Red Cross Society and community–based rehabilitation. Paper presented at African Regional Conference on CBR, Hrr, 3–16 April 1989.

GACHUHI S.M. (Ed.) (1990) East, Central and Southern Africa Seminar of the Deaf, Dec. 1990, Kenya National Association of the Deaf, Nairobi. Helsinki: Finnish Assoc. Deaf.

GOTLOP M. (1992) Preliminary survey of professionals on attitudes towards people with disabilities and their provision in Botswana. Unpubl. # diss. Univ. London.

Handbook on Communication and Grassroots Mobilisation in Organisations of Disabled People (1997). Bulawayo: Dev. Initiatives and Serv. 24 pp.

HARTLEY S. & WIRZ S. (1993) Investigating models of service delivery for people with communication disorders in anglophone Africa. In: M. Kersner & R.M. Barry (Eds.) Work in Progress 3: 56–64. London: Natl Hospital's Coll. of Speech Sci.

HELANDER, Einar (1978) Planning of Community–Based Rehabilitation Services in Botswana. AFR/REHAB/10/ 1978. Brazzaville: WHO Regional Office for Africa.

§ HILLEBRECHT, Werner (1989) Education Bibliography of Namibia. Bremen: Univ. Bremen, Centre for African Studies. 135 pp.

HOP M. (1997) Public attitudes towards disabled people in Botswana: an action [study] into the attitudes of students and Batswana in general. [Presented at the Third Biennial National Conference on Teacher Education, Gabarone, August 1997]. 13 pp.

ILO (1983) Findings and recommendations concerning Phase II and III of the ILO/Finland Vocational Rehabilitation Project. Geneva: ILO.

ILO (1991) Agricultural Extension Work with a Farmer with a Mental Disability. Hrr.

ILO (1992) How to Start a Small Business: a manual for community workers assisting persons with disabilities. Hrr: ILO.

ILO (1993) No Application Form: Poems and Stories by Women with Disabilities from Southern Africa; A Glimpse of the Lives of Women with Disabilities: Report on a Study of 150 Women with Disabilities in Gokwe and Harare. Hrr: ILO.

ILO (1994) Listen To The People: a guide for planners of disability programmes. Geneva: ILO. 44 pp. ISBN 92 2 109299 2870.

INGSTAD, Benedicte (1989) Strategies for improving the situation of disabled people in Botswana. In: Jan Hesselberg (Ed.) Botswana: Report from a Seminar, 45–54. Univ. Oslo.

INGSTAD B. (1984) An Evaluation of Community Based Rehabilitation in Kweneng District, Botswana: a half way report from a research project. Univ. Oslo. 36 pp.

INGSTAD B. (1988) Coping behaviour of disabled persons and their families. Cross–cultural perspectives from Norway and Botswana. IJRR 11: 351–9.

INGSTAD B. (1990) The disabled person in the community: social and cultural aspects. IJRR 13: 187–94. (Botswana)

INGSTAD B. (1995) Mpho ya Modimo – a gift of God: perspectives on "attitudes" toward disabled persons. In: B. Ingstad & S.R. Whyte (Eds.) (q.v.) 246–63.

INGSTAD B. (1997) Community–based rehabilitation in Botswana, the myth of the hidden disabled. Lewiston, NY: Mellen. xi + 384 pp.

INGSTAD B. (1999) Problems with community mobilization and participation in CBR: a case from Botswana. In: R. Leavitt (Ed.) (q.v.) 207–216.

INGSTAD B. & BRUUN, Frank J. (1994) Elderly people as care providers. In: F.J. Bruun, M. Mugabe & Y. Coombes (Eds.) The Situation of the Elderly in Botswana. Proceedings of an International Workshop, 69–78. Gab: UNBO, & Univ. Oslo. ISSN 0805–3251.

INGSTAD B. & MELSOM, Turid (1985) An Evaluation of the Botswana Red Cross Society Primary Health care and Community–based Rehabilitation Programmes. Gab: Botswana Red Cross Socy.

INGSTAD B. & WHYTE, Susan Reynolds (Eds.) (1995) Disability and Culture. Berkeley: Univ. California Press. ISBN 0520083628. X + 307 pp.

§ IRVINE S.H., SANDERS J.T. & KLINGELHOFER E.L. (1969) Human Behaviour in Africa: a bibliography of psychological and related writings. St. Catherines, Ontario: Brock Univ., Dept Educ.

IRWIN–CARRUTHERS S.H. (1987) African infant precocity – fact or fallacy? A review. South Afr. J. Physiotherapy 43: 41–44.

JACKSON H. (1993) Social Work and Disability. A training manual for professionals in Africa. (Draft publication) Hrr: ILO/FINNIDA & School of Soc. Work. ISBN 92–2–108734–4.

JACKSON H. (1993) Challenging Disability. A guide for frontline social workers in Africa. Harare: School of Soc. Work, & Geneva: ILO. (Ten separate modules, totalling 319 pp.)

JACOBS N.A. & MARINCEK C. [1988] Report of the Workshop on Prosthetics and Orthotics for African Countries, Moshi, Tanzania, July 1988. Glasgow: ISPO publications, Natl Trng Centre in Prosthetics & Orthotics.

JILEK–AALL L. (1999) Morbus sacer in Africa: some religious aspects of epilepsy in traditional cultures. Epilepsia 40: 382–386.

JONES, Linda Adams & MAASDORP, Melinda (1994) Missing Youth: an investigation of non–attendants, over–age learners and drop–outs of primary schools in Namibia. Wdk: Univ. Namibia, Soc. Sciences Division. 57 pp.

JOOSTE P.L., FABER M., BADENHORST C.J., Van STADEN E., OELOFSE A. & SCHUTTE C.H. (1994) Nutritional status of primary school children with endemic goitre in Caprivi, Namibia. CAJM 40 (3) 60–66.

JUMP, Stephen & PEART, Michael A. (1991) Development of a low cost hearing aid (for use in Botswana and other African countries). In: Hearing Aids: Their Production, Delivery Systems and Effective use, 41–47. London: Royal Natl Inst. Deaf.

KABZEMS, Venta & CHIMEDZA, Robert (2002) Development assistance: disability and education in Southern Africa. Disability & Society 17: 147–157.

KAHIKUATA J. & MOSTERT M. (1996) Special education services in Namibia. UNISE Bull. Special Issue, July 1996, 14–16.

KARVINEN, Arvo (1997) Review of rehabilitation services for the visually impaired in Namibia. In: H. Kokkala (Ed.) (q.v.) 158–67.

KGATHI, Betty (1995) Perceptions of the disabled and their families regarding available services. Project Report, B.Ed., UNBO, Dept Nursing Educ. iii + 39 pp.

KGOSIDINTSI, Adelaide D. (1982) Report of the International Year of Disabled Persons in Botswana (1981). Gab: Botswana Natl CftH. 19 pp.

KINGSLEY P.R. (1977) The Measurement of Intelligence in Africa: some conceptual issues and related research. HDRU Reports, No. 28. Lsk: UNZA. 54 pp. + Appendix (xviii)

KISANJI Joseph (1991) A review of special education in Botswana and recommendations for a national policy. Gab.

KISANJI J. (1993) Special education in Africa. In: P. Mittler et al. (Eds.) World Yearbook of Education 1993. Special Needs Education, 158–172. London: Kogan Page.

KOKKALA, Heikki (Ed.) (1997) Providing Special Education for those who need it in developing countries. Helsinki: Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. 202 pp. ISBN 951–724–154–2 (incl. contributions from Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe).

KUMARESAN J.A. & MAGANU E.T. (1994) Knowledge and attitude of health workers towards leprosy in North–Western Botswana. EAMJ 71: 366–67.

KUMARESAN J.A. & MAGANU E.T. (1994) Socio–cultural dimensions of leprosy in north–western Botswana. Soc.Sci.M. 39: 537–41.

LEAVITT, Ronnie L. (Ed.) (1999) Cross–Cultural Rehabilitation: an international perspective. London: Harcourt Brace. ISBN 0 702 022454.

LIDDELL, Christine (1988) The social interaction and activity patterns of children from two San groups living as refugees on a Namibian military base. J. Cross–Cultural Psychl. 19 (3) 341–60.

§ LUIJK, J.N. van (1969) Selected Bibliography of Sociological and Anthropological Literature Relating to Modern and Traditional Medicine in Africa South of the Sahara. Leiden.

LUNDGREN–LINDQUIST B. & NORDHOLM L. (1993) Community based rehabilitation: a survey of disabled in a village in Botswana. Disab. & Rehab. 15 (2) 83–89.

LUNDGREN–LINDQUIST B. & NORDHOLM L.A. (1996) The impact of community based rehabilitation as perceived by disabled people in a village in Botswana. Disab. & Rehab. 18: 329–34.

MAJA–PEARCE, Adewale [1998] Disabled Africa. Rights not welfare. London: Index on Censorship. 23 pp.

MAKATI–NDALA, Lorraine Tebogo (1998) Report: Disability and Human Rights Workshop, Gabarone, Botswana, 21–25 July 1998. Bulawayo: SAFOD. 47 pp. (incl. Angola, Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, etc.)

MÄKI, Onerva (1992) Namibia Special Education Project Plan. Helsinki: FINNIDA.

MANGADI T.R. (1987) The rights and welfare of disabled children in Botswana. In: [Report of Seminar on rights of children in Botswana], 59–68. Gab: UNICEF.

MASWABI B.E. [1979] Report on National Seminar for Vocational Rehabilitation for the Disabled Person in Botswana: 23–25 October 1978. Gab: GoB, Min. Home Affairs & Labour. 67 pp.

MATIZA E. (1980) Training the Disabled in the Community, Serowe and Palapye. Botswana.

MATOME, Gomolemo P. (1989) Community based services for young children with mental handicap and developmental disabilities in Botswana. In: Serpell, Nabuzoka & Lesi (q.v.) 59–65.

MAZONDE, Isaac Ncube (1988) A Study of Attitudes towards the Disabled in Botswana. Gab: UNBO, NIDRD. ii + 28 pp.

MILES S. (1996) Engaging with the disability rights movement: the experience of community–based rehabilitation in southern Africa. Disability & Socy 11: 501–17. (incl. Zimbabwe, Mozambique)

MOAHI K.H. & MONAU R.M. (1993) Library and information needs of disabled persons in Botswana. Afr. J. Library, Archives & Information Sci.. 3 (2) 125–32.

MODIE, Tirelo (Ed.) [1996] Report on the National Seminar on "Equalisation of Opportunities for People with Disabilities: Towards the Twenty First Century," April 17–18th, 1996. Gab: Botswana Cncl for the Disabled. ii + 87 pp.

MODISE, Martha N. (1982) Village–based rehabilitation workshop, Molepolole, 16–20 August 1982. Gaborone: Botswana Red Cross Socy.

MOLOI, Julie P. (1998) The role of non–governmental organisations in the establishment of special education in Botswana: the case study of Camphill Rankoromane Community Trust. Project Report (B.A.) UNBO, Dept History.

MOLOSIWA, Serefete M. (1995) The effectiveness of teacher training for pupils with mental handicap in Botswana. M.Ed. thesis, Univ. Manchester. 137 pp.

MOLOSIWA S.M. (1999) The school curriculum and the children with disabilities. In: Abosi et al. Issues on Access and Opportunity (q.v.) 42–53.

MOORE J. (1994) The Engela (Namibia) Portage Programme. Intl Portage Newsletter (December).

MOPHUTING T. (1987) Teachers' Perceptions of Integration of Handicapped Children into the Regular Classroom. B.Ed. thesis. UNBO, 50 pp.

MPOFU E., OAKLAND T. & CHIMEDZA R. (2000) Africa: East and Southern, Special Education in. In: C.R. Reynolds & E. Fletcher–Janzen (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Special Education (Second edn) I: 58–65. New York: Wiley.

§ MUGABE M. & MOAHI K. (1994) Health in Botswana. An annotated bibliography. Gab: UNBO. ix + 163 pp. ISBN 99912–2–013–5. (pp. 23–25, Disabity & Rehab., 18 items).

MUNRO, Donald (1967) Pre School Environments and Intellectual Development: a selective survey of the literature, with particular reference to Africa. HDRU Reports No. 5. Inst. for Soc. Res., UNZA. 37 pp.

MWAMWENDA, Tunfuye S. & MWAMWENDA, Bernadette B. (1986) Intellectual development of Batswana children. Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs 112: 345–59.

MWAMWENDA T.S. & MWAMWENDA B.B. (1991) Africans' cognitive development and schooling. Intl J. Educl. Dev. 11: 129–34.

NAMIBIA (1991) Integration of disabled people in Namibia. Unpubl. paper. Wdk: GoN.

NAMIBIA (1996) National Early Childhood Development Policy. Wdk: GoN.

NAMIBIA, Directorate, Special Educational Programmes (1994). Special Education in Namibia: with special reference to the mentally, physically and learning disabled. Wdk: GoN.

NAMIBIA, Min. Educ. & Culture [1994] How Much Do Namibia's Children Learn in School? Findings from the 1992 National Learner Baseline Assessment. Wdk: New Namibia Books. 116 pp.

NAMIBIA, Min. LRR [1995] Disability and Rehabilitation in Namibia. Vol. 1: National Survey. Wdk: GoN. (Republished: see BRUHNS)

NAMIBIA, Min. LRR (1997) Presentation of the Disability Resource Centre, Windhoek, Namibia. Wdk: GoN. 5 pp.

NAMIBIA, Min. LRR (1997) Community–Based Rehabilitation (CBR). A Namibian Master Plan, January 1997. Wdk: GoN. 11 pp.

NAMIBIA, Min. LRR (1997) Situation Analysis on Disability (13 Feb. 1997). Wdk: GoN. 12 pp + app.

NAMIBIA, Min. LRR (1997) White Paper on National Policy on Disability. Wdk: GoN. iv + 16 pp.

NAMIBIA, Min. LRR (1997) National Policy on Disability adopted by the National Assembly in July 1997. Wdk: GoN. vi + 17.

NEPELA, Sadike, LOHMEIER, Angula & SPENDU, Onesmus (1990) Workshop on Disability and Development in an Independent Namibia, May 4 – 8, 1990, Wdk.: Oxfam & RRR Comm. 67 pp.

NIEKERK A.B.W. van, VRIES J.B., BAARD J. & SCHOUB B.D. (1994) Outbreak of paralytic poliomyelitis in Namibia. Lancet 344, 3 Sept.: 661–4.

NORDHOLM, Lena A. & LUNDGREN–LINDQUIST, Birgitta (1999) Community–based rehabilitation in Moshupa village, Botswana. Disabity & Rehab.. 21: 515–21.

NYATI–RAMAHOBO, Lydia (1992) The Girl Child in Botswana: educational constraints and prospects. Gabarone: UNICEF. 36 pp.

OJILE E. (1985) The problem of establishing early communication patterns for deaf children in the developing countries of Africa – a possible solution. In: I.G. Taylor (Ed.) (q.v.) IV: 2043–48.

OJO, Rachel Ronke (1996) Information and library needs of the disabled children in Botswana. Diss., MLIS. UNBO, Dept Library & Information Studies. ix + 124 pp.

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