Functional Localization of the Cerebrum.
Source: Japanese Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 38(4):296-302.
Abstract: The functional localization of the cerebrum is described from the anatomical point of view. In the central nervous system, neurons or nerve fibers with the same function gather to form gray matters or nerve fiber bundles. This article briefly describes and discusses about morphology of the telencephalon, structures of the cerebral cortex and functional localization of the cerebral cortex. On the surface of the telencephalon, there are many sulci and gyri. Several sulci such as the central, lateral, parietooccipital, etc. subdivide the pallium into five lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal and insular. The insula is covered by the operculi frontale, frontoparietale et temporale. Under the microscopic observation of cerebral corteces, they consist of six cortical layers which vary from part to part. Since Brodmann (1909) divided the cortical areas into 52, we can explain cerebral areas properly for example, Brodmann's cytoarchitectonic areas 4, 3-1-2, 17, 41, 44, etc. Regarding cerebral functional localizations, Broca (1861) proposed first a theory of cerebral functional localization on motor speech after examining a patient with motor aphasia. Penfield and Rasmussen (1950) published a monograph entitled "The cerebral cortex of man: A clinical study of localization of function." They studied cerebral functions at various parts using many patients with brain damages prior to surgical treatments. Their study have covered sensorimotor representation of the body, head and eye movement, representation of autonomic system, vocalization and arrest of speech, secondary sensory and motor representation, vision, hearing and equilibration, memory, sensory perception, etc. This review article plays up several important points of past researches on human beings. (Journal Abstract)
Institution: Department of Anatomy, Showa University School of Medicine